Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: Fission-2010-1.1.2 | Award Amount: 2.40M | Year: 2011
The focus of IPPA is on the establishment of arenas where different stakeholders can move forward together to increase their understanding of the issues involved in radioactive waste disposal and of their respective views. The focus is on implementation in some central and eastern European countries. The overall structure is in one end to take stock of existing research results and other experiences for implementation, and in the other end to evaluate to provide feedback to knowledge and research. The framework of the Implementing Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste Technology Platform (IGD-TP) can be a suitable forum in which to investigate these issues further, therefore emphasis is given to linking IPPA results to the development of the platform. Work Package 1 provides participants with information and overview of theoretical achievements and practical experiences both from research and national programmes that should be valuable when organizing activities and arenas for participation and transparency. An information package on basic approaches is produced for that purpose. In Work Package 2, the RISCOM Model and other approaches to public involvement are implemented in five radioactive waste management (rwm) programmes in Central and Eastern European countries. The practical implementation activities will vary between countries, as the status of the programmes, other national and local factors and issues of debate differ. In Work Package 3, certain issues of common interest for all countries and for groups of countries will be investigated - Cross-border issues (such as Environmental Impact Assessment and the Espoo Convention), The regional repository option and application of the Aarhus Convention. The ARGONA empirical data for analysing how negotiations on compensation can be implemented at the local level and the study ended in concrete recommendations for this. In Work Package 4, these and other issues will be further examined and communicated with municipalities in participating countries. In Work Package 5 a review will be made of activities in Work Package 2 in order to provide feedback to these activities and also to the European knowledge base for processes of participation and transparency. The dissemination of IPPA approaches and results will take place in Work Package 6. A project website will be developed and maintained, and an End Users Conferences will be organized towards the end of project.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: Fission-2013-6.0.1 | Award Amount: 1.22M | Year: 2013
The objective of PLATENSO is to provide a proposal towards establishing the legal base for a European Entity on Socio-Economic matters linked to nuclear technology and to develop recommendations for research strategies in PLATENSO countries. Thereby the capabilities of research institutes in Central and Eastern European countries to take part in EU research with respect to governance, social and societal aspects is enhanced. Initially, lessons learned from earlier projects, what is the state of knowledge in societal, social and governance issues, are reviewed and summarized. The research infrastructures within which project activities and future research are to take place are mapped and efforts are made to make sure research actors frame their approaches broad enough. Research strategies are formed for research in governance, social and societal issues in which participation in EU programmes is an integrated part. The strategies are tested with case studies to make sure they are feasible to implement. A number of networking activities are carried through as a major step toward actual foundation of the strategies in PLATENSO countries. In each country a PLATENSO partner will take responsibility for building a network of research institutions in its respective country. Establishment of the legal base for a European Entity on Socio-Economic matters linked to nuclear technology has potential to overcome the barriers that still exist for taking them fully into account and to make the awareness of the social and political challenges to come to action. On the basis of exploratory studies focusing on Central and Eastern Europe and contacts with relevant stakeholders in all EU, the project will analyze main aspects with regard to the implementation of the entity (organization, legal form, communication structure, content, etc.). Major areas on social, societal and governance issues for the envisaged Entity will be proposed. A nuclear energy scenario based on the Generation 4 ALLEGRO reactor concept will be given special attention as a pilot case for the European Entity giving support to ALLEGRO in social, societal and governance issues, which will include testing the draft strategy for research. The exact forms for this will be developed in close cooperation between PLATENSO and the ALLIANCE project.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NFRP-06-2014 | Award Amount: 9.66M | Year: 2015
The Modern2020 project aims at providing the means for developing and implementing an effective and efficient repository operational monitoring programme, taking into account the requirements of specific national programmes. The work allows advanced national radioactive waste disposal programmes to design monitoring systems suitable for deployment when repositories start operating in the next decade and supports less developed programmes and other stakeholders by illustrating how the national context can be taken into account in designing dedicated monitoring programmes tailored to their national needs. The work is established to understand what should be monitored within the frame of the wider safety cases and to provide methodology on how monitoring information can be used to support decision making and to plan for responding to monitoring results. Research and development work aims to improve and develop innovative repository monitoring techniques (wireless data transmission, alternative power supply sources, new sensors, geophysical methods) from the proof of feasibility stage to the technology development and demonstration phase. Innovative technical solutions facilitate the integration and flexibility of required monitoring components to ease the final implementation and adaptation of the monitoring system. Full-scale in-situ demonstrations of innovative monitoring techniques will further enhance the knowledge on the operational implementation of specific disposal monitoring and will demonstrate the performance of the state-of-the-art, the innovative techniques and their comparison with conventional ones. Finally, Modern2020 has the ambition to effectively engage local citizen stakeholders in the R&D monitoring activity by involving them at an early stage in a repository development programme in order to integrate their concerns and expectations into monitoring programmes.
Galson D.A.,Galson Sciences Ltd |
Bailey L.E.F.,Nuclear Decommissioning Authority
Mineralogical Magazine | Year: 2012
A three-year European Commission project entitled performance assessment methodologies in application to guide the development of the safety case (PAMINA) was conducted in the period 2006-2009 and brought together 27 organizations from ten European countries, including the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority and Galson Sciences Ltd from the UK. The PAMINA project had the aim of improving and developing a common understanding of performance assessment (PA) methodologies for disposal concepts for spent fuel and other long-lived radioactive wastes in a range of geological environments. Work undertaken within PAMINA focussed on four areas: (1) review of PA methodologies in participating organizations; (2) treatment of uncertainty in PA and the safety case; (3) other methodological advancements in PA; and (4) relevance of advanced PA approaches to practical cases. The state of development of a radioactive waste disposal programme has a strong influence on the type of safety case and supporting PA that is produced. A range of PA methodologies has been developed by different waste management organizations. This paper presents a selection of conclusions from the PAMINA project, in the context of general understanding developed on what would constitute an acceptable safety case for a geological disposal facility, and outlines areas for further development. © 2012 The Mineralogical Society.
Kojo M.,University of Tampere |
Richardson P.,Galson Sciences Ltd
Energy Strategy Reviews | Year: 2014
This paper contributes to the discussion surrounding the use of community benefits (also known as added value) in radioactive waste facility siting programmes. These are becoming more widely used following a series of programme failures around the world, due in the main to a lack of local involvement. The stakeholder groups in three countries, i.e. the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovenia, were invited to respond to a series of questions designed to explore their attitudes and thoughts about the different community benefit approaches and related issues. Results suggest that legal controls offer a framework in which to operate, but within it negotiation seems to be a preferred method, with local conditions providing an additional perspective. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Richardson P.,Galson Sciences Ltd |
Rickwood K.,Atomic Reporters |
Rickwood P.,Atomic Reporters
Energy Strategy Reviews | Year: 2013
Safety remains the most important issue amongst the public throughout the life cycle of nuclear facilities. After the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant in the United States in 1979 there has been increasing emphasis placed on dialogue with the public as a response to these concerns.Five cases where the dynamic of relationships between the nuclear industry and the public has been well defined are examined in the following paper, a condensed version of a longer study commissioned by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).Four of the cases provide evidence of public involvement making a significant contribution to improved safety; the fifth case, distinguished by a breakdown of accountability, reviews the continued failure after more than 40 years of a bid to establish a nuclear disposal facility.While there is general agreement that the geological disposal of radioactive waste needs to involve the public, not only for siting purposes but also as regards its long term stewardship, at other stages of the life cycle of nuclear facilities the role of the public is less well defined. However, these findings suggest that public engagement is a potential untapped resource for enhancing safety assurance. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Solano J.M.S.,Imperial College London |
Jackson M.D.,Imperial College London |
Jackson M.D.,Galson Sciences Ltd |
Sparks R.S.J.,University of Bristol |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Petrology | Year: 2012
Mantle-derived basaltic sills emplaced in the lower crust provide a mechanism for the generation of evolved magmas in deep crustal hot zones (DCHZ). This study uses numerical modelling to characterize the time required for evolved magma formation, the depth and temperature at which magma formation occurs, and the composition of the magma. The lower crust is assumed to comprise amphibolite. In an extension of previous DCHZ models, the new model couples heat transfer during the repetitive emplacement of sills with mass transfer via buoyancy-driven melt segregation along grain boundaries. The results shed light on the dynamics of DCHZ development and evolution. The DCHZ comprises a mush of crystals plus interstitial melt, except when a new influx of basaltic magma yields a short-lived (20-200 years) reservoir of melt plus suspended crystals (magma). Melt segregation and accumulation within the mush yields two contrasting modes of evolved magma formation, which operate over timescales of c. 10 kyr-1 Myr, depending upon emplacement rate and style. In one, favoured by emplacement via over-accretion, or emplacement at high rates, evolved magma forms in the crust overlying the intruded basalt sills, and is composed of crustal partial melt, and residual melt that has migrated upwards out of the crystallizing basalt. In the other, favoured by emplacement via under- or intra-accretion, or by emplacement at lower rates, evolved magma forms in the intruded basalt, and the resulting magma is composed primarily of residual melt. In all cases, the upward migration of buoyant melt yields cooler and more evolved magmas, which are broadly granitic in composition. Chemical differentiation is therefore driven by melt migration, because the melt migrates through, and chemically equilibrates with, partially molten rock at progressively lower temperatures. Crustal assimilation occurs during partial melting, and mixing of crustal and residual melt occurs when residual melt migrates into the partially molten crust, yielding chemical signatures indicative of a mixed crustal and mantle origin. However, residual melt is volumetrically more significant than crustal melt, except at the highest emplacement rates. Contamination of crustal melt by residual melt from basalt crystallization appears to be an inevitable consequence of melt segregation in DCHZ, and can explain the mixed crust-mantle origin of many granites. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Winsley R.J.,Radioactive Waste Management |
Baldwin T.D.,Galson Sciences Ltd |
Hicks T.W.,Galson Sciences Ltd |
Mason R.M.,Amec Foster Wheeler |
Smith P.N.,Amec Foster Wheeler
Mineralogical Magazine | Year: 2015
A geological disposal facility (GDF) will include fissile materials that could, under certain conditions, lead to criticality. Demonstration of criticality safety therefore forms an important part of a GDF's safety case. Containment provided by the waste package will contribute to criticality safety during package transport and the GDF operational phase. The GDF multiple-barrier system will ensure that criticality is prevented for some time after facility closure. However, on longer post-closure timescales, conditions in the GDF will evolve and it is necessary to demonstrate: an understanding of the conditions under which criticality could occur; the likelihood of such conditions occurring; and the consequences of criticality should it occur. Work has addressed disposal of all of the UK's higher-activity wastes in three illustrative geologies. This paper, however, focuses on presenting results to support safe disposal of spent fuel, plutonium and highlyenriched uranium in higher-strength rock. The results support a safety case assertion that post-closure criticality is of low likelihood and, if it was to occur, the consequences would be tolerable. © 2016 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin/Boston.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: Fission-2012-1.1.1 | Award Amount: 15.74M | Year: 2012
DOPAS aims to improve the adequacy and consistency regarding industrial feasibility of plugs and seals, the measurement of their characteristics, the control of their behavior over time in repository conditions and also their hydraulic performance acceptable with respect to the safety objectives. This DOPAS project addresses the design basis, reference designs and strategies to demonstrate the compliance of the reference designs to the design basis, for plugs and seals in geological disposal facilities. The project focuses on shaft seals for salt rock (German repository concept), tunnel plugs for clay rock (French and Swiss repository concepts), and tunnel plugs for crystalline rock (Czech, Finnish and Swedish repository concepts). Five different demonstration experiments are part of the project and will take place in Sweden, France, Finland, Czech Republic and Germany. They are in different state-of-development. The Swedish demonstrator will be constructed prior to start of the DOPAS project and will basically provide experience on demonstration of compliance of reference design to the design basis. German demonstrator will be installed after the DOPAS project and will focus on demonstration of suitability by performance assessment. The French, Finnish, Swedish,German and the Czech experiments will address developments in all phases of design basis, reference designs and strategies to demonstrate compliance of reference designs to design basis. The studied concepts will be developed in the DOPASs five thematic scientific/technological work packages, which each integrate the results of the individual experiments. The DOPAS project is derived from the IGD-TPs Strategic Research Agenda that points out the topic of plug and seals as a first priority issue for joint European RTD projects.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP | Phase: Fission-2008-1.1.2 | Award Amount: 5.11M | Year: 2009
The MoDeRn project aims at providing a reference framework for the development and possible implementation of monitoring activities and associated stakeholder engagement during relevant phases of the radioactive waste disposal process, i.e. during site characterisation, construction, operation and staged closure, as well as a post-closure institutional control phase. Monitoring provides operators and other stakeholders with in-situ data on repository evolutions, to contribute to operational safety, to help manage construction, operation and/or closure activities, and may allow for a comparison with prior safety assessments. It thus provides information to inform necessary decisions. If, in addition, monitoring activities respond to stakeholder needs and provide them with understandable results, they will contribute to transparency and possibly to stakeholder confidence in the disposal process. The project is structured into six work packages (WPs). The first four WPs are dedicated to (i) analyze key objectives and propose viable strategies, based on both technical and stakeholder considerations; to (ii) establish the state of the art and provide technical developments to match specific repository requirements; to (iii) conduct in-situ monitoring demonstration experiments using innovative techniques; and to (iv) conduct a case study of monitoring and its integration into staged disposal, including specific scenarii analysis aimed at providing guidance on how to handle and communicate monitoring results, in particular when these provide unexpected information. In order to provide a shared international view on how monitoring can be developed within a given national context, WP5 regroups key dissemination activities and WP6 will provide a reference framework integrating project results and describing feasible monitoring activities, suggesting relevant stakeholder engagement activities, and illustrating possible uses of monitoring results for decision-making.