St Louis, MO, United States

Gallus BioPharmaceuticals

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St Louis, MO, United States
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Lin X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Zhong S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Ye X.,Gallus BioPharmaceuticals | Liao Y.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 12 more authors.
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2015

Background: GPRC5A is a retinoic acid inducible gene that is preferentially expressed in lung tissue. Gprc5a- knockout mice develop spontaneous lung cancer, indicating Gprc5a is a lung tumor suppressor gene. GPRC5A expression is frequently suppressed in majority of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), however, elevated GPRC5A is still observed in a small portion of NSCLC cell lines and tumors, suggesting that the tumor suppressive function of GPRC5A is inhibited in these tumors by an unknown mechanism. Methods: In this study, we examined EGF receptor (EGFR)-mediated interaction and tyrosine phosphorylation of GPRC5A by immunoprecipitation (IP)-Westernblot. Tyrosine phosphorylation of GPRC5A by EGFR was systematically identified by site-directed mutagenesis. Cell proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth of NSCLC cell lines stably transfected with wild-type GPRC5A and mutants defective in tyrosine phosphorylation were assayed. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining analysis with specific antibodies was performed to measure the total and phosphorylated GPRC5A in both normal lung and lung tumor tissues. Result: We found that EGFR interacted with GPRC5A and phosphorylated it in two conserved double-tyrosine motifs, Y317/Y320 and Y347/ Y350, at the C-terminal tail of GPRC5A. EGF induced phosphorylation of GPRC5A, which disrupted GPRC5A-mediated suppression on anchorage-independent growth of NSCLC cells. On contrary, GPRC5A-4 F, in which the four tyrosine residues have been replaced with phenylalanine, was resistant to EGF-induced phosphorylation and maintained tumor suppressive activities. Importantly, IHC analysis with anti-Y317/Y320-P sites showed that GPRC5A was non-phosphorylated in normal lung tissue whereas it was highly tyrosine-phosphorylated in NSCLC tissues. Conclusion: GPRC5A can be inactivated by receptor tyrosine kinase via tyrosine phosphorylation. Thus, targeting EGFR can restore the tumor suppressive functions of GPRC5A in lung cancer. © 2014 Lin et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Lin X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Lin X.,Malvern Inc. | Zhong S.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | Ye X.,Shanghai JiaoTong University | And 15 more authors.
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: GPRC5A is a retinoic acid inducible gene that is preferentially expressed in lung tissue. Gprc5a- knockout mice develop spontaneous lung cancer, indicating Gprc5a is a lung tumor suppressor gene. GPRC5A expression is frequently suppressed in majority of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs), however, elevated GPRC5A is still observed in a small portion of NSCLC cell lines and tumors, suggesting that the tumor suppressive function of GPRC5A is inhibited in these tumors by an unknown mechanism. Methods: In this study, we examined EGF receptor (EGFR)-mediated interaction and tyrosine phosphorylation of GPRC5A by immunoprecipitation (IP)-Westernblot. Tyrosine phosphorylation of GPRC5A by EGFR was systematically identified by site-directed mutagenesis. Cell proliferation, migration, and anchorage-independent growth of NSCLC cell lines stably transfected with wild-type GPRC5A and mutants defective in tyrosine phosphorylation were assayed. Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining analysis with specific antibodies was performed to measure the total and phosphorylated GPRC5A in both normal lung and lung tumor tissues. Result: We found that EGFR interacted with GPRC5A and phosphorylated it in two conserved double-tyrosine motifs, Y317/Y320 and Y347/ Y1, at the C-terminal tail of GPRC5A. EGF induced phosphorylation of GPRC5A, which disrupted GPRC5A-mediated suppression on anchorage-independent growth of NSCLC cells. On contrary, GPRC5A-4 F, in which the four tyrosine residues have been replaced with phenylalanine, was resistant to EGF-induced phosphorylation and maintained tumor suppressive activities. Importantly, IHC analysis with anti-Y317/Y320-P sites showed that GPRC5A was non-phosphorylated in normal lung tissue whereas it was highly tyrosine-phosphorylated in NSCLC tissues. Conclusion: GPRC5A can be inactivated by receptor tyrosine kinase via tyrosine phosphorylation. Thus, targeting EGFR can restore the tumor suppressive functions of GPRC5A in lung cancer. © 2014 Lin et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Backues S.K.,University of Michigan | Backues S.K.,Eastern Michigan University | Orban D.P.,University of Michigan | Orban D.P.,University of Osnabrück | And 5 more authors.
Traffic | Year: 2015

Atg9 is a conserved multipass transmembrane protein with an essential role in autophagy. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it travels through the secretory pathway to a unique compartment, the Atg9 peripheral structures. These structures are then targeted to the phagophore assembly site (PAS), where they are proposed to help deliver membrane to the forming autophagosome. We used 'in vivo reconstitution' of this process in a multiple-knockout strain to define four proteins, Atg11, Atg19, Atg23 and Atg27, as the core minimal machinery necessary and sufficient for the trafficking of Atg9 to the PAS. Atg23 and Atg27 function in the formation of the Atg9 peripheral structures. Overexpression of Atg9 can bypass the need for Atg23, suggesting that the amount of Atg9 in each peripheral structure is a critical factor in their targeting to the PAS. In contrast, overexpression of Atg23 or Atg27 interferes with Atg9 trafficking, suggesting that these proteins must be present in the appropriate stoichiometry in order to function properly. These data allow us to resolve existing controversies regarding the role of Atg23 and Atg27, and propose a model that ties together previous observations regarding the role of Atg9 in autophagosome formation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


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