Qiryat Shemona, Israel
Qiryat Shemona, Israel

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Lublin A.,Kimron Veterinary Institute | Goldenberg D.,Migal Galilee Technology Center | Goldenberg D.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Rosenbluth E.,Kimron Veterinary Institute | And 3 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

Many isolates of the contagious avian reovirus have been characterized, mainly based on the sequence of their sigma C protein. These isolates have been classified into four genotypes. Currently available vaccines are of limited effectiveness, likely due to the existence of many variants. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a vaccine consisting of a mixture of prototypes (representatives) of the four defined genotypic groups of avian reovirus. The prototypes were selected based on their distance from the isolates within each genotype. All prototypes were found to be virulent. Antibodies produced against each of the prototypes neutralized all members of its genotype. Birds were then vaccinated with a mixture of the four prototypes. Results suggest that the 4-valent vaccine can prevent disease and confer broad protection against field isolates of avian reovirus. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Gamrasni D.,Fruit Storage Research Laboratory | Gamrasni D.,Migal Galilee Technology Center | Gamrasni D.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Ben-Arie R.,Fruit Storage Research Laboratory | Goldway M.,Migal Galilee Technology Center
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2010

The 'Spadona' pear is a summer cultivar that ripens without chilling-induced ethylene production. To expand our understanding of ethylene involvement in the initiation and progress of 'Spadona' fruit ripening, and with the aim of improving fruit quality after storage, pears were treated with the ethylene action inhibitor 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP).Fruit were treated with 0.2μLL-1 1-MCP for 20h at 20°C, at four stages of ripeness as determined by ethylene production: pre-climacteric fruit at early and late harvests (H1 and H2, respectively), and early harvested fruit after 7 and 12 d conditioning at 20°C (C1 and C2, respectively), reflecting early and mid-climacteric fruit. The treatment effect was evaluated after 6 months' storage in controlled atmosphere (-0.5°C, 1.5% O2, 5% CO2) and subsequently during 2 weeks at 20°C. 1-MCP treatment effectively inhibited pear ripening when applied immediately after both early (H1) and late (H2) harvests and improved the storage potential of the fruit. However, the effect of 1-MCP treatment on H2 pears was less pronounced, resulting in a more rapid recovery of sensory attributes after storage. 1-MCP application to C1 pears also effectively inhibited ethylene production after storage and delayed pear softening during the first week at 20°C, but thereafter fruit quality deteriorated. Applying 1-MCP to C2 pears resulted in a transient inhibition of ethylene production, which was recovered at 20°C, with little effect on the storage potential of the fruit. mRNA expression of ACC oxidase 1 (ACO1), ACC synthase 1b (ACS1b) and the ethylene response sensor 1 (ERS1) after storage was inhibited by 1-MCP treatment at all stages of ripening, but the extent of inhibition was affected by the stage of ripening at the time of application. ACO activity was inhibited in fruit of all stages of ripeness, apart from mid-climacteric fruit.Improved quality of 'Spadona' pears was achieved after 6 months controlled atmosphere (CA) storage and 2 weeks shelf-life by applying 1-MCP immediately after harvest and the later harvested fruit were larger and of superior sensory attributes. Thus, 1-MCP can serve as an important tool for the regulation of postharvest pear ripening with economic benefits. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Dafny-Yalin M.,Migal Galilee Technology Center | Glazer I.,Migal Galilee Technology Center | Bar-Ilan I.,Migal Galilee Technology Center | Bar-Ilan I.,Tel-Hai Academic College | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The current study describes differences in pomegranate fruit size and aril weight of 29 accessions grown in Israel. The contents of sugars and organic acids in their aril juices and peel homogenates, as well as color parameters, were determined. While the levels of total soluble solids (TSS) and soluble sugars in the aril juices differ only slightly, those of titratable acidity (TA) and citric acid changed significantly, suggesting that they are the main contributors to juice taste. In general, significant positive correlations were found between TA values and the red color parameters, and these two parameters, as well as TSS, appeared to be higher in the juices of accessions harvested late in the season. Peel homogenates exhibited lower levels of TSS, TA, soluble sugars and organic acids than aril juices. Some red color parameters, TA and citric acid were found to correlate significantly between the aril juices and peel homogenates. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Song S.,Institute of Crop Science | Hou W.,Institute of Crop Science | Godo I.,Migal Galilee Technology Center | Wu C.,Institute of Crop Science | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2013

Soybean seeds provide an excellent source of protein for human and livestock nutrition. However, their nutritional quality is hampered by a low concentration of the essential sulfur amino acid, methionine (Met). In order to study factors that regulate Met synthesis in soybean seeds, this study used the Met-insensitive form of Arabidopsis cystathionine γ-synthase (AtD-CGS), which is the first committed enzyme of Met biosynthesis. This gene was expressed under the control of a seed-specific promoter, legumin B4, and used to transform the soybean cultivar Zigongdongdou (ZD). In three transgenic lines that exhibited the highest expression level of AtD-CGS, the level of soluble Met increased significantly in developing green seeds (3.8-7-fold). These seeds also showed high levels of other amino acids. This phenomenon was more prominent in two transgenic lines, ZD24 and ZD91. The total Met content, which including Met incorporated into proteins, significantly increased in the mature dry seeds of these two transgenic lines by 1.8- and 2.3-fold, respectively. This elevation was accompanied by a higher content of other protein-incorporated amino acids, which led to significantly higher total protein content in the seeds of these two lines. However, in a third transgenic line, ZD01, the level of total Met and the level of other amino acids did not increase significantly in the mature dry seeds. This line also showed no significant change in protein levels. This suggests a positive connection between high Met content and the synthesis of other amino acids that enable the synthesis of more seed proteins. © The Author [2013].

Amir R.,Migal Galilee Technology Center | Amir R.,Tel-Hai Academic College | Han T.,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Ma F.,Northeast Agricultural University
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2012

Methionine is a nutritionally essential, sulfur-containing amino acid found at low levels in plants and in their seeds. Methionine levels often limit the plant's value as a source of dietary protein for humans and animals. Despite recent accumulated knowledge of methionine metabolism in vegetative tissues, there is still little knowledge of methionine metabolism in seeds. In this review, we summarize the efforts made to increase the levels of methionine in seeds using genetic engineering methods. Two main approaches were tested: the first was the expression of methionine-rich storage proteins in a seed-specific manner, with the goal of trapping the soluble methionine into protein form and competing with the catabolism of methionine to its essential metabolites. However, in many cases this approach does not lead to a significant increase in total methionine content. The second approach aimed to increase the soluble content of methionine in seeds. Despite the nutritional significance of methionine, the factors regulating soluble methionine content in seeds are not fully known. Evidence shows that two biosynthetic pathways, the aspartate family pathway and the S-methylmethionine pathway, contribute to soluble methionine content in seeds. However, their roles in soluble methionine synthesis and accumulation are not fully understood. In recent years, combinations of these two approaches have been tested; however, they have not yet succeeded in elevating total methionine content in seeds. More emphasis should be applied to gaining knowledge of the biosynthesis pathways that could contribute to an increase in methionine content in seeds. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Tal N.,Edmond and Lily Safra Childrens Hospital Tel Hashomer | Tal N.,Tel Aviv University | Shochat C.,Tel Aviv University | Shochat C.,Migal Galilee Technology Center | And 8 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2014

Cancer is often caused by deregulation of normal developmental processes. Here, we review recent research on the aberrant activation of two hematopoietic cytokine receptors in acute lymphoid leukemias. Somatic events in the genes for thymic stromal lymphopoietin and Interleukin 7 receptors as well as in their downstream JAK kinases result in constitutive ligand-independent activation of survival and proliferation in B and T lymphoid precursors. Drugs targeting these receptors or the signaling pathways might provide effective therapies of these leukemias. © 2013 Springer Basel.

Mian A.A.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Metodieva A.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Najajreh Y.,Al-Quds University | Ottmann O.G.,Goethe University Frankfurt | And 2 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2012

Background: The t(9;22) translocation leads to the formation of the chimeric breakpoint cluster region/c-abl oncogene 1 (BCR/ABL) fusion gene on der22, the Philadelphia chromosome. The p185BCR/ABL or the p210BCR/ABL fusion proteins are encoded as a result of the translocation, depending on whether a "minor" or "major" breakpoint occurs, respectively. Both p185BCR/ABL and p210BCR/ABL exhibit constitutively activated ABL kinase activity. Through fusion to BCR the ABL kinase in p185BCR/ABL and p210BCR/ABL "escapes" the auto-inhibition mechanisms of c-ABL, such as allosteric inhibition. A novel class of compounds including GNF-2 restores allosteric inhibition of the kinase activity and the transformation potential of BCR/ABL. Here we investigated whether there are differences between p185BCR/ABL and p210BCR/ABL regarding their sensitivity towards allosteric inhibition by GNF-2 in models of Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphatic leukemia. Design and Methods: We investigated the anti-proliferative activity of GNF-2 in different Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphatic leukemia models, such as cell lines, patient-derived long-term cultures and factor-dependent lymphatic Ba/F3 cells expressing either p185BCR/ABL or p210BCR/ABL and their resistance mutants. Results: The inhibitory effects of GNF-2 differed constantly between p185BCR/ABL and p210BCR/ABL expressing cells. In all three Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphatic leukemia models, p210BCR/ABL-transformed cells were more sensitive to GNF-2 than were p185BCR/ABL-positive cells. Similar results were obtained for p185BCR/ABL and the p210BCR/ABL harboring resistance mutations. Conclusions: Our data provide the first evidence of a differential response of p185BCR/ABL- and p210BCR/ABL- transformed cells to allosteric inhibition by GNF-2, which is of importance for the treatment of patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphatic leukemia. © 2012 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

Matityahu I.,Migal Galilee Technology Center | Godo I.,Migal Galilee Technology Center | Hacham Y.,Migal Galilee Technology Center | Amir R.,Migal Galilee Technology Center | Amir R.,Galilée College
BMC Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Background: The essential sulfur-containing amino acid methionine plays a vital role in plant metabolism and human nutrition. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the regulatory role of the first committed enzyme in the methionine biosynthesis pathway, cystathionine γ-synthase (CGS), on methionine accumulation in tobacco seeds. We also studied the effect of this manipulation on the seed's metabolism. Results: Two forms of Arabidopsis CGS (AtCGS) were expressed under the control of the seeds-specific promoter of legumin B4: feedback-sensitive F-AtCGS (LF seeds), and feedback-insensitive T-AtCGS (LT seeds). Unexpectedly, the soluble content of methionine was reduced significantly in both sets of transgenic seeds. Amino acids analysis and feeding experiments indicated that although the level of methionine was reduced, the flux through its synthesis had increased. As a result, the level of protein-incorporated methionine had increased significantly in LT seeds by up to 60%, but this was not observed in LF seeds, whose methionine content is tightly regulated. This increase was accompanied by a higher content of other protein-incorporated amino acids, which led to 27% protein content in the seeds although this was statistically insignificantly. In addition, the levels of reducing sugars (representing starch) were slightly but significantly reduced, while that of oil was insignificantly reduced. To assess the impact of the high expression level of T-AtCGS in seeds on other primary metabolites, metabolic profiling using GC-MS was performed. This revealed significant alterations to the primary seed metabolism manifested by a significant increase in eight annotated metabolites (mostly sugars and their oxidized derivatives), while the levels of 12 other metabolites were reduced significantly in LT compared to wild-type seeds. Conclusion: Expression of T-AtCGS leads to an increase in the level of total Met, higher contents of total amino acids, and significant changes in the levels of 20 annotated metabolites. The high level of oxidized metabolites, the two stress-associated amino acids, proline and serine, and low level of glutathione suggest oxidative stress that occurs during LT seed development. This study provides information on the metabolic consequence of increased CGS activity in seeds and how it affects the seed's nutritional quality. © 2013 Matityahu et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Degani O.,Tel-Hai Academic College | Degani O.,Migal Galilee Technology Center
Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Heterotrimeric G proteins transduce extracellular signals to control development in eukaryotes, including filamentous fungi. Targeted disruption of their α- and β-subunit genes has shown that fungal G proteins play essential roles in sexual and asexual sporulation, hyphal growth pattern and virulence. The G-protein β-subunit gene CGB1 of Cochliobolus heterostrophus, the agent of Southern leaf blight, is essential for virulence and sporulation, while one of the α-subunit genes, CGA1, has roles in several developmental pathways. We constructed a strain with insertions/deletions at both CGA1 and CGB1. The double mutant, like the single mutants, was deficient in mating and appressorium formation and its hyphae followed a straight path rather than the typical meandering growth pattern on a hard surface. The two genes shared a combined role in determining pigmentation, surface hydrophobicity, and resistance to different stresses. However, in contrast to the single mutants, the double mutants developed white-gray to completely white colonies that are hydrophilic and form wet, autolytic-appearing patches. These phenotypes resemble some of those conferred by mutations in the MAPK gene CHK1, suggesting crosstalk between MAPK and G-protein pathways. Loss of signal-transduction functions, while reducing virulence, increases resistance to some stresses. A model is proposed for the interactions between the signaling pathways. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Cohen H.,Migal Galilee Technology Center | Cohen H.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Israeli H.,Migal Galilee Technology Center | Matityahu I.,Migal Galilee Technology Center | And 3 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2014

With an aim to elucidate novel metabolic and transcriptional interactions associated with methionine (Met) metabolism in seeds, we have produced transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) seeds expressing a feedback-insensitive form of CYSTATHIONINE-g- SYNTHASE, a key enzyme of Met synthesis. Metabolic profiling of these seeds revealed that, in addition to higher levels of Met, the levels of many other amino acids were elevated. The most pronounced changes were the higher levels of stress-related amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, valine, and proline), sugars, intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and polyamines and lower levels of polyols, cysteine, and glutathione. These changes reflect stress responses and an altered mitochondrial energy metabolism. The transgenic seeds also had higher contents of total proteins and starch but lower water contents. In accordance with the metabolic profiles, microarray analysis identified a strong induction of genes involved in defense mechanisms against osmotic and drought conditions, including those mediated by the signaling cascades of ethylene and abscisic acid. These changes imply that stronger desiccation processes occur during seed development. The expression levels of transcripts controlling the levels of Met, sugars, and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites were also significantly elevated. Germination assays showed that the transgenic seeds had higher germination rates under salt and osmotic stresses and in the presence of ethylene substrate and abscisic acid. However, under oxidative conditions, the transgenic seeds displayed much lower germination rates. Altogether, the data provide new insights on the factors regulatingMet metabolism in Arabidopsis seeds and on the mechanisms by which elevated Met levels affect seed composition and behavior. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

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