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Semkov E.H.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Peneva S.P.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | Munari U.,National institute for astrophysics | Tsvetkov M.K.,Bulgarian Academy of Science | And 6 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Aims. We present new results from optical photometric and spectroscopic observations of the eruptive pre-main sequence star V2493 Cyg (HBC 722). The object has continued to undergo significant brightness variations over the past few months and is an ideal target for follow-up observations. Methods. We carried out CCD BVRI photometric observations in the field of V2493 Cyg ("Gulf of Mexico") from August 1994 to April 2012, i.e. at the pre-outburst states and during the phases of the outburst. We acquired high, medium, and low resolution spectroscopy of V2493 Cyg during the outburst. To study the pre-outburst variability of the target and construct its historical light curve, we searched for archival observations in photographic plate collections. Both CCD and photographic observations were analyzed using 15 comparison stars in the field of V2493 Cyg. Results. The pre-outburst photographic and CCD photometric observations of V2493 Cyg show low-amplitude light variations typical of T Tauri stars. The recent photometric data show a slow light decrease from October 2010 to June 2011 followed by an increase in brightness that continued until early 2012. The spectral observations of V2493 Cyg are typical of FU Orionis stars absorption spectra with strong P Cyg profiles of Hα and Na I D lines. On the basis of photometric monitoring performed over the past two years, the spectral properties at the maximal light, as well as the shape of long-term light curves, we confirm that the observed outburst of V2493 Cyg is of FU Orionis type. © 2012 ESO. Source

Szkody P.,University of Washington | Mukadam A.,University of Washington | Gansicke B.T.,University of Warwick | Henden A.,American Association of Variable Star Observers | And 8 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2010

Time-resolved low resolution Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectra together with ground-based optical photometry and spectra are used to constrain the temperatures and pulsation properties of six cataclysmic variables containing pulsating white dwarfs (WDs). Combining our temperature determinations for the five pulsating WDs that are several years past outburst with past results on six other systems shows that the instability strip for accreting pulsating WDs ranges from 10,500 to 15,000K, a wider range than evident for ZZ Ceti pulsators. Analysis of the UV/optical pulsation properties reveals some puzzling aspects. While half the systems show high pulsation amplitudes in the UV compared to their optical counterparts, others show UV/optical amplitude ratios that are less than one or no pulsations at either wavelength region. © 2010. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Silvestri N.M.,University of Washington | Szkody P.,University of Washington | Mukadam A.S.,University of Washington | Hermes J.J.,University of Texas at Austin | And 3 more authors.
Astronomical Journal | Year: 2012

We report Galaxy Evolution Explorer NUV and optical follow-up observations of the cataclysmic variable V455 And at 3years past its large amplitude dwarf nova outburst. Orbital and superhump variations are evident in the NUV and optical light curves. We clearly detect the spin along with a photometric variation that we tentatively attribute to non-radial pulsations in the Discrete Fourier Transforms at both wavelengths. The increased amplitude of the spin and pulsation in the NUV versus the optical implies an origin near the white dwarf. The shorter pulsation period after outburst is indicative of a white dwarf that remains hotter than at quiescence. © © 2012. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Raiteri C.M.,National institute for astrophysics | Villata M.,National institute for astrophysics | D'Ammando F.,University of Perugia | D'Ammando F.,National institute for astrophysics | And 85 more authors.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society | Year: 2013

Since the launch of the Fermi satellite, BL Lacertae has been moderately active at γ-rays and optical frequencies until 2011 May, when the source started a series of strong flares. The exceptional optical sampling achieved by the GLAST-AGILE Support Program of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope in collaboration with the Steward Observatory allows us to perform a detailed comparison with the daily γ-ray observations by Fermi. Discrete correlation analysis between the optical and γ-ray emission reveals correlation with a time lag of 0 ± 1 d, which suggests cospatiality of the corresponding jet emitting regions. A better definition of the time lag is hindered by the daily gaps in the sampling of the extremely fast flux variations. In general, optical flares present more structure and develop on longer time-scales than corresponding γ-ray flares. Observations at X-rays and at millimetre wavelengths reveal a common trend, which suggests that the region producing the mm and X-ray radiation is located downstream from the optical and γ-ray-emitting zone in the jet. The mean optical degree of polarization slightly decreases over the considered period and in general it is higher when the flux is lower. The optical electric vector polarization angle (EVPA) shows a preferred orientation of about 15°, nearly aligned with the radio core EVPA and mean jet direction. Oscillations around it increase during the 2011-2012 outburst. We investigate the effects of a geometrical interpretation of the long-term flux variability on the polarization. A helical magnetic field model predicts an evolution of the mean polarization that is in reasonable agreement with the observations. These can be fully explained by introducing slight variations in the compression factor in a transverse shock waves model. © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society. Source

Raiteri C.M.,National institute for astrophysics | Villata M.,National institute for astrophysics | Smith P.S.,University of Arizona | Larionov V.M.,Saint Petersburg State University | And 84 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2012

Context. After years of modest optical activity, the quasar-type blazar 4C 38.41 (B3 1633+382) experienced a large outburst in 2011, which was detected throughout the entire electromagnetic spectrum, renewing interest in this source. Aims. We present the results of low-energy multifrequency monitoring by the GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) consortium and collaborators, as well as those of spectropolarimetric/ spectrophotometric monitoring at the Steward Observatory. We also analyse high-energy observations of the Swift and Fermi satellites. This combined study aims to provide insights into the source broad-band emission and variability properties. Methods. We assemble optical, near-infrared, millimetre, and radio light curves and investigate their features and correlations. In the optical, we also analyse the spectroscopic and polarimetric properties of the source. We then compare the low-energy emission behaviour with that at high energies. Results. In the optical-UV band, several results indicate that there is a contribution from a quasi-stellar-object (QSO) like emission component, in addition to both variable and polarised jet emission. In the optical, the source is redder-when-brighter, at least for R a3; 16. The optical spectra display broad emission lines, whose flux is constant in time. The observed degree of polarisation increases with flux and is higher in the red than the blue. The spectral energy distribution reveals a bump peaking around the U band. The unpolarised emission component is likely thermal radiation from the accretion disc that dilutes the jet polarisation. We estimate its brightness to be R QSO ∼ 17.85-18 and derive the intrinsic jet polarisation degree. We find no clear correlation between the optical and radio light curves, while the correlation between the optical and γ-ray flux apparently fades in time, likely because of an increasing optical to γ-ray flux ratio. Conclusions. As suggested for other blazars, the long-term variability of 4C 38.41 can be interpreted in terms of an inhomogeneous bent jet, where different emitting regions can change their alignment with respect to the line of sight, leading to variations in the Doppler factor δ. Under the hypothesis that in the period 2008-2011 all the γ-ray and optical variability on a one-week timescale were due to changes in δ, this would range between ∼7 and ∼21. If the variability were caused by changes in the viewing angle θ only, then θ would go from ∼2.6° to ∼5°. Variations in the viewing angle would also account for the dependence of the polarisation degree on the source brightness in the framework of a shock-in-jet model. © 2012 ESO. Source

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