Tokyo, Japan
Tokyo, Japan

The Gakushūin or Peers School , also known as Gakushūjo, is a Japanese educational institution originally established to educate the children of Japan's nobility. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 15, 2017

The Tokyo 2020 Olympics will be a backwards step for the promotion of sustainability through sport, according to Isao Sakaguchi, a professor at Gakushuin University and currently visiting scholar at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies, California. Sakaguchi told Undercurrent News the games will reverse progress made during the London and Rio Olympic games because suppliers will be allowed to serve seafood certified by "green-washing" Japanese certification schemes. An industry source in Japan was also “disappointed” by the inclusion of Japanese schemes, which involved a public consultation period late last year. “AEL and MEL [Japan's Marine Eco-Label and Aquaculture Eco-Labeling] are less robust, standards are lower," said the source, who did not wish to be quoted by name. "This undercuts suppliers using ASC and MSC [Aquaculture Stewardship Council and Marine Stewardship Council]-certified seafood because seafood certified by these organizations is more expensive." Last month the Tokyo 2020 Organizing Committee published the final version of its sourcing code (see here. The English language version is not yet available). It sets criteria for everything supplied for the games, from timber used in the Olympic village to food served in Olympic-affiliated canteens and restaurants. For Tokyo 2020, the sourcing code stipulates suppliers can source seafood certified as sustainable by one of four certification authorities: MSC, ASC, MEL and AEL. During the games in Rio and London, only MSC- and ASC-certified seafood was promoted. Sakaguchi, who has published papers on Japan's seafood industry, said neither MEL or AEL are in compliance with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) guidelines for fisheries and aquaculture certification. "They are totally green-washing mechanisms," he said. "The free pass system of MEL and AEL do not challenge the current unsustainable management policies [in Japan], while both MSC and ASC are not in line with them," he said. Through conveying green credentials to depleted stocks, MEL can in fact contribute to further overfishing of Japanese coastal stocks, half of which are at a low level. For instance, the Japan Fisheries Resource Conservation Association -- which audits fisheries and aquaculture farms for MEL and AEL certification -- certified purse seines which target spawning schools of endangered Pacific bluefin tuna in the Sea of Japan. This is despite the Pacific bluefin tuna stock being historically at its lowest level, and recruitment of juvenile fish remains low, he said. Across Japan as a whole, total allowable catch is set just for seven species, and the upper limit is usually set at a level that [fishermen] cannot reach, he said. He said both MEL and AEL are supported by subsidies from the Fisheries Agency of Japan, whereas fishermen and aquaculture farmers are discouraged from engaging with MSC and ASC. "In Japan management of fisheries and aquaculture is basically conducted in a voluntary basis," he said. Consequently, just three Japanese fisheries and one aquaculture farm are certified by MSC and ASC respectively, while 28 fisheries are certified by MEL and 19 aquaculture farms by AEL. In a statement provided to Undercurrent, the Tokyo Organising Committee said it “acknowledges the responsibility in ensuring a resilient and sustainable [seafood industry]”, but that it is “not in a position to determine whether one certification is superior to another”. "The Tokyo 2020 Organising Committee has held multiple working group meetings with sustainability experts,” it said. “As a result of these meetings, it was assessed that MSC, MEL, ASC and AEL certifications all satisfy the sustainability criteria that Tokyo 2020 has set in its sourcing code.” Regarding MEL standards, the organizing committee “understands that these are currently undergoing a recognition process by an international institution [so] that MEL conforms [to] the FAO guidelines. Therefore, we would challenge the assertion that MEL certification is not in compliance with the FAO guidelines." GSSI global benchmarking, which so far has approved MSC, Alaskan Regional Fisheries Management (RFM) and Icelandic RFM certified fisheries, is the international institution which assesses certification schemes. MEL is currently revising criteria to adhere to GSSI global benchmarking and has set a three-year transition period within which all fisheries currently certified by MEL have to be reassessed. But this period ends after the Tokyo Olympics. The Olympic and Paralympic Games is described as the largest peacetime catering operation in the world. “Overall, Japanese people are becoming more conscious of sustainability. The Olympics is a great opportunity to contribute to that,” said the industry source. Sakaguchi pulls no punches. “For the 2020 Tokyo Olympics the legacy could well be ‘Japanese seas without fish’."

Udagawa M.,Gakushuin University | Bergholtz E.J.,Free University of Berlin | Bergholtz E.J.,Albanova University Center
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2016

Three-dimensional condensed matter incarnations of Weyl fermions generically have a tilted dispersion - in sharp contrast to their elusive high-energy relatives where a tilt is forbidden by Lorentz invariance, and with the low-energy excitations of two-dimensional graphene sheets where a tilt is forbidden by either crystalline or particle-hole symmetry. Very recently, a number of materials (MoTe2, LaAlGe, and WTe2) have been identified as hosts of so-called type-II Weyl fermions whose dispersion is so strongly tilted that a Fermi surface is formed, whereby the Weyl node becomes a singular point connecting electron and hole pockets. We here predict that these systems have remarkable properties in the presence of magnetic fields. Most saliently, we show that the nature of the chiral anomaly depends crucially on the relative angle between the applied field and the tilt, and that an inversion-asymmetric overtilting creates an imbalance in the number of chiral modes with positive and negative slopes. The field-selective anomaly gives a novel magneto-optical resonance, providing an experimental way to detect concealed Weyl nodes. © 2016 American Physical Society.

Nakamura H.,Gakushuin University | Minegishi H.,Gakushuin University
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2013

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are ubiquitous and evolutionary conserved proteins induced by cell stress. HSP60, in particular, is a typical mitochondrial molecular chaperone that is known to assist nascent polypeptides to reach a native conformation. HSP60 is also known to interact with HSP10. In the last decade, HSP60 has been detected in the cytosol, the cell surface, the extracellular space, and biological fluids. HSP60 elicits potent proinflammatory response in cells of the innate immune system and serves as a danger signal of stressed or damaged cells. As cytosolic HSP60 levels gradually increase or decrease during carcinogenesis in various organs, HSP60 can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries on the important roles of HSP60 in various diseases ranging from autoimmune diseases to tumors. Furthermore, small molecules targeting HSP60, which were the target of intensive investigations in the last few years, are also summarized. The possibility of utilizing HSP60 as a new drug target for the treatment of certain diseases is examined. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Sun K.,University of Maryland University College | Gu Z.,University of California at Santa Barbara | Katsura H.,Gakushuin University | Das Sarma S.,University of Maryland University College
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2011

We report the theoretical discovery of a class of 2D tight-binding models containing nearly flatbands with nonzero Chern numbers. In contrast with previous studies, where nonlocal hoppings are usually required, the Hamiltonians of our models only require short-range hopping and have the potential to be realized in cold atomic gases. Because of the similarity with 2D continuum Landau levels, these topologically nontrivial nearly flatbands may lead to the realization of fractional anomalous quantum Hall states and fractional topological insulators in real materials. Among the models we discover, the most interesting and practical one is a square-lattice three-band model which has only nearest-neighbor hopping. To understand better the physics underlying the topological flatband aspects, we also present the studies of a minimal two-band model on the checkerboard lattice. © 2011 American Physical Society.

Mori K.,Gakushuin University | Wakazawa M.,Gakushuin University | Akiyama T.,Gakushuin University
Chemical Science | Year: 2014

We describe herein a chiral phosphoric acid catalyzed Friedel-Crafts reaction of indoles with β-alkoxycarbonyl-β-disubstituted nitroalkenes. A wide variety of substrates participated in this reaction to afford indoles having all-carbon quaternary centers with excellent selectivities (up to 97% ee). Further investigation suggested that the olefin geometry and the employment of NH-indole derivatives are responsible for both reactivity and selectivity. © 2014 the Partner Organisations.

Tasaki H.,Gakushuin University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

In a system of interacting f=1 bosons (in the subspace where the total spin in the z direction is vanishing), we prove inequalities for the ground state expectation value of the density of spin-0 bosons. The inequalities imply that the ground state possesses "polar" or "antiferromagnetic" order when the quadratic Zeeman term q is large enough. In the low density limit, the inequalities establish the existence of a sharp transition at q=0 when q is varied. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Katsura H.,Gakushuin University | Tasaki H.,Gakushuin University
Physical Review Letters | Year: 2013

We prove basic theorems about the ground states of the S=1 Bose-Hubbard model. The results are quite universal and depend only on the coefficient U 2 of the spin-dependent interaction. We show that the ground state exhibits saturated ferromagnetism if U2<0, is spin-singlet if U2>0, and exhibits "SU(3)-ferromagnetism" if U 2=0, and completely determine the degeneracy in each region. © 2013 American Physical Society.

Sato S.,Gakushuin University | Nakamura H.,Gakushuin University
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

A photocatalyst ([Ru(bpy)3]2+) bound to a protein ligand was essential for the title method. Local single-electron transfer from the catalyst resulted in the formation of tyrosyl radicals. N′-Acetyl-N,N- dimethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine was used as the tyrosyl radical trapping agent and used in a radical addition to afford selective modification of the target protein. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Recent development of boron cluster lipids and their liposomal boron delivery system (BDS) are summarized in this article. Boron compounds used in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) are, in general, nontoxic unless neutron capture reaction of boron takes place. Therefore, the boron compounds accumulated into other organs would not cause such side effects for patient. Selective and sufficient delivery of boron-10 to tumor results in the successful BNCT. There are two approaches for BDS: encapsulation of boron compounds into liposomes and incorporation of boron-conjugated lipids into the liposomal bilayer, both of which have been significantly investigated. The combination of both approaches displayed potency and, hence, the ability to reduce the total dose of liposomes without reducing the efficacy of BNCT. Boron compounds that have no affinity to tumor can potentially be delivered to tumor tissues by liposomes, therefore, liposomal BDS would be one of the most attractive approaches for efficient BNCT of various cancers. © 2013 Future Science Ltd.

Sugiishi T.,Gakushuin University | Nakamura H.,Gakushuin University
Journal of the American Chemical Society | Year: 2012

The zinc(II)-catalyzed redox cross-dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) of propargylic amines and terminal alkynes proceeds to afford N-tethered 1,6-enynes. In the current CDC reaction, a C(sp)-C(sp 3) bond is formed between the carbon adjacent to the nitrogen atom in the propargylic amine and the terminal carbon of the alkyne with reduction of the C-C triple bond of the propargylic amine, which acts as an internal oxidant. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

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