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Ludhiāna, India

Context and objective: The molecular characterization of local isolates of Toxoplasma gondii is considered significant so as to assess the homologous variations between the different loci of various strains of parasites. Design and setting: The present communication deals with the molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the 1158 bp entire open reading frame (ORF) of surface antigen 3 (SAG3) of two Indian T. gondii isolates (Chennai and Izatnagar) being maintained as cryostock at the IVRI. Method: The surface antigen 3 (SAG3) of two local Indian isolates were cloned and sequenced before being compared with the available published sequences. Results: The sequence comparison analysis revealed 99.9% homology with the standard published RH strain sequence of T. gondii. The strains were also compared with other established published sequences and found to be most related to the P-Br strain and CEP strain (both 99.3%), and least with PRU strain (98.4%). However, the two Indian isolates had 100% homology between them. Conclusion: Finally, it was concluded that the Indian isolates were closer to the RH strain than to the P-Br strain (Brazilian strain), the CEP strain and the PRU strains (USA), with respect to nucleotide homology. The two Indian isolates used in the present study are known to vary between themselves, as far as homologies related to other genes are concerned, but they were found to be 100% homologous as far as SAG3 locus is concerned. This could be attributed to the fact that this SAG3 might be a conserved locus and thereby, further detailed studies are thereby warranted to exploit the use of this particular molecule in diagnostics and immunoprophylactics. The findings are important from the point of view of molecular phylogeny. © 2015, Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo. All rights reserved. Source

Singh P.K.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Kumar S.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Bhat Z.F.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Kumar P.,GADVASU
Nutrition and Food Science

Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the effect of Sorghum bicolour on the quality characteristics of chevon cutlets and to evaluate the effect of clove oil on the storage quality of aerobically packaged chevon cutlets.Design/methodology/approach: Three levels of sorghum flour, namely, 2, 4 and 6 per cent, were incorporated in the formulation, and the products developed were assessed for various physicochemical, sensory, texture and colour parameters. Chevon cutlets containing optimum level of sorghum flour were treated with clove oil (100 ppm) and evaluated for storage quality for 15 days under refrigerated conditions (4 ± 1°C). The products were analysed for various physicochemical, microbiological and sensory parameters.Findings: Crude fibre, texture parameters, i.e. hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, gumminess and product redness value, showed significant (p<0.05) increasing trend, whereas moisture per cent, fat content and overall acceptability decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing levels of incorporation. Chevon cutlets containing 6 per cent sorghum flour were optimized as best. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance value (mg malonaldehyde/kg), total plate count (cfu/g) and psychrophillic count (cfu/g) showed a significant increasing trend (p < 0.05), whereas all the sensory parameters decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing days of storage. The products were successfully stored for 10 days under refrigerated conditions (4±1°C) without marked loss in quality.Originality/value: The paper has demonstrated the potential of sorghum as a fibre source in the development of designer chevon cutlets and effect of clove oil on the storage quality of aerobically packaged chevon cutlets. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Source

A marked variation, in terms of time lag gap of the depiction of visible clinical signs and the actual appearance of parasitic stages in body tissues, exists in experimental toxoplasmosis. Keeping this in mind, a study was designed to find out the time gap associated variability in appearance of tachyzoites in blood stream of infected mice. For this purpose, surface antigen 3 (SAG 3) was selected as a candidate to detect toxoplasmosis from blood samples taken at regular intervals from murine models. PCR was standardized to diagnose toxoplasmosis in ten inbred Swiss albino mice after experimental inoculation of 100 tachyzoites of laboratory maintained human RH strain of the parasite. The blood samples were subjected to PCR, in duplicates, using primers directed to the multicopy of SAG 3 gene at regular 12 -h interval post infection. The tachyzoites begin to appear between 36 h post infection and by 48 h blood of all the mice were found to be infected by tachyzoites. Alongside, other visible symptoms begin to appear after 72 h post infection. In conclusion, ample time gap was found regarding the initiation of clinical infection and actual appearance of visible clinical signs that could prove detrimental in final outcome of condition. © 2015, Springer-Verlag London. Source

Khan A.M.,GADVASU | Raina R.,SKUAST J | Singh G.,Veterinary Medicine | Beigh S.A.,Veterinary Medicine | Beigh S.A.,University Of Kashmir

As part of our study on the toxic effects of deltamethrin and fluoride (F) on antioxidant parameters in rats, hematological effects of these chemicals were evaluated in the same animals. Deltamethrin and F produced a marked decrease in the hematological parameters including total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and total leukocyte count. Among alterations in the leukocytes, lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and eosinopenia were observed. Exposure of the rats to both deltamethrin and F together gave the greatest changes. © 2013 The International Society for Fluoride Research Inc. Source

Canine distemper (CD), caused by canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious disease that infects a variety of carnivores. Sequence analysis of CDVs from different geographical areas has shown a lot of variation in the genome of the virus especially in haemagglutinin gene which might be one of the causes of vaccine failure. In this study, we isolated the virus (place: Ludhiana, Punjab; year: 2014) and further cloned, sequenced and analyzed partial haemagglutinin (H) gene and full length genes for fusion protein (F), phosphoprotein (P) and matrix protein (M) from an Indian wild-type CDV. Higher sequence homology was observed with the strains from Switzerland, Hungary, Germany; and lower with the vaccine strains like Ondersteport, CDV3, Convac for all the genes. The multiple sequence alignment showed more variation in partial H (45 nucleotide and 5 amino acid substitutions) and complete F (79 nucleotide and 30 amino acid substitutions) than in complete P (44 nucleotide and 22 amino acid substitutions) and complete M (22 nucleotide and 4 amino acid substitutions) gene/protein. Predicted potential N-linked glycosylation sites in H, F, M and P proteins were similar to the previously known wild-type CDVs but different from the vaccine strains. The Indian CDV formed a distinct clade in the phylogenetic tree clearly separated from the previously known wild-type and vaccine strains. © 2015, Indian Virological Society. Source

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