Ludhiāna, India
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Umaraw P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Verma A.K.,GADVASU
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2017

The functions of packaging materials are to prevent moisture loss, drip, reduce lipid oxidation, improve some of their sensorial properties (color, taste and smell) and provide microbial stability of foods. Edible films can be made from protein, polysaccharides and lipids or by combination of any of these to form a composite film. Nanocomposites are composite films made by incorporation of nanoparticles. Edible packaging and coating of the meat and meat products enhances the self-life by the incorporation of the active compound (such as antimicrobial and antioxidant compound) in to the packaging matrix. Incorporation of the some ingredients in the matrix may also improve the nutritional as well as sensory attributes of the packed products. Edible packaging material also reduces environmental pollution by overcoming the burden degradation as edible films are biodegradable and thus eco-friendly. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Zargar U.R.,Central University of Kashmir | Chishti M.Z.,Central University of Kashmir | Rather M.I.,University Of Kashmir | Rehman M.,University Of Kashmir | Zargar N.,GADVASU
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2017

Endoparasitic infections vary significantly across altered aquatic ecosystems, making these organisms ideal for the biomonitoring of degraded environments. To assess the biomonitoring potential of the Caryophyllaeid tapeworm Adenoscolex oreini and the possible impact of water quality on fish species, a study was carried out in three lakes with marked eutrophication and pollution gradients. The A. oreini infection level in three host fish species of the genus Schizothorax and corresponding fish health status were determined. The pattern of cestode infection varied significantly in the three fish species across the pollution gradient. The prevalence of infection in two fish species (Schizothorax esocinus and S. curvifrons) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the eutrophic lake than in the reference lake, whereas in S. niger, the maximum was reached in the hypereutrophic lake. The estimated marginal mean intensity and other infection indices varied significantly (P < 0.05) across the inter- and intra-pollution gradients of lakes. Multivariate statistical analysis results revealed maximum cestode infection in the eutrophic lake. An altered seasonal pattern was observed in the highly stressed lake. The gonadosomatic index (GSI) and condition factor values were significantly greater in fish collected from the reference lake than in those collected from the other lakes. A significant negative relationship between GSI and cestode prevalence was observed in the hypereutrophic lake as compared to least eutrophic lake. These findings indicate that infection indices of the Caryophyllaeid tapeworm and health attributes of fish can act as surrogates for the environmental quality of deteriorated lentic water bodies of the north-western Himalayan region, which is currently undergoing environmental degradation. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Mukhopadhyay C.S.,GADVASU | Kumar R.,GADVASU | Brah G.S.,GADVASU
Veterinary World | Year: 2010

Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) which have been identified in almost all groups of organisms, are the small cationic molecules that recognize the pathogen associated molecular patterns of the microbes. In chicken two main AMPs that play significant roles in bolstering the innate immunity are gallinacins and fowlicidins, which are the functional analogues of the mammalian beta-defensins and cathelicidins. Gallinacin identifies the Gram negative bacteria while fowlicidin exerts broad spectral activity. The basic mechanism of action is by far similar in both groups of AMPs. The 'docking sites' of these antimicrobial peptides includes the "lipid A" moiety of lipo polysaccharides, lipo-teichoic acids, anionic membrane phospholipids on bacterial surfaces. These AMPs block the DNA replication and protein synthesis in bacteria causing death of the microbe. Researchers have identified reproducible molecular markers of those peptides for selection of disease resistant stock of chickens.

Khatun M.,GADVASU | Kaur S.,GADVASU | Kanchan,GADVASU
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2013

Subfertility problems are encountered frequently in the cattle and buffalo bulls commercially maintained for semen production in dairy farms and under field conditions for natural insemination. Reports are scarce on the incidence of subfertility in breeding bulls, especially in India. The objective of the present study was to assess the incidence of the male reproductive anomalies leading to disposal of bovine bulls at GADVASU dairy farm, Ludhiana, Punjab (India). Data on frequency of various subfertility and disposal pattern of bulls maintained at the dairy farm, GADVASU, were collected for 12 yrs (1999 to 2010) and compiled from different record registers. Percentage of bulls that produced freezable semen (out of reserved ones) was less in cattle (25.641%) as compared to that of buffalo (30.4%). Various subfertility traits like poor libido and unacceptable seminal profile were found to be the significant reasons (p<0.01) for culling of the breeding bulls. Inadequate sex drive and poor semen quality were the main contributing factors for bull disposal in cattle whereas poor semen freezability was most frequently observed in buffalo bulls. All the male reproductive traits were significantly different (p<0.05) for the periods of birth, except for semen volume, initial motility (IM), age at last semen collection (ALSC) and age at disposal. The ages at first and last semen collection as well as freezing (i.e. AFSC, ALSC and AFSF, ALSF, respectively) and age at disposal (AD) were higher in buffalo. The spermatological parameters and semen production period (SPP) were higher in cattle. The age at first semen donation and breeding period could be reduced by introducing the bulls to training at an early age. The results revealed an increasing trend in individual motility (IM) while semen volume, AFSC, AFSF, AD, FSPP, SPP, ALSC and ALSF showed a decreasing, however, not a definite trend, over the periods. The semen donation traits like, AFSF, of the cattle and buffalo bulls could be predicted from the AFSC, using prediction equation derived in the present study. Copyright © 2013 by Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences.

Context and objective: The molecular characterization of local isolates of Toxoplasma gondii is considered significant so as to assess the homologous variations between the different loci of various strains of parasites. Design and setting: The present communication deals with the molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the 1158 bp entire open reading frame (ORF) of surface antigen 3 (SAG3) of two Indian T. gondii isolates (Chennai and Izatnagar) being maintained as cryostock at the IVRI. Method: The surface antigen 3 (SAG3) of two local Indian isolates were cloned and sequenced before being compared with the available published sequences. Results: The sequence comparison analysis revealed 99.9% homology with the standard published RH strain sequence of T. gondii. The strains were also compared with other established published sequences and found to be most related to the P-Br strain and CEP strain (both 99.3%), and least with PRU strain (98.4%). However, the two Indian isolates had 100% homology between them. Conclusion: Finally, it was concluded that the Indian isolates were closer to the RH strain than to the P-Br strain (Brazilian strain), the CEP strain and the PRU strains (USA), with respect to nucleotide homology. The two Indian isolates used in the present study are known to vary between themselves, as far as homologies related to other genes are concerned, but they were found to be 100% homologous as far as SAG3 locus is concerned. This could be attributed to the fact that this SAG3 might be a conserved locus and thereby, further detailed studies are thereby warranted to exploit the use of this particular molecule in diagnostics and immunoprophylactics. The findings are important from the point of view of molecular phylogeny. © 2015, Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo. All rights reserved.

Sudan V.,P.A. College | Tewari A.K.,IVRI | Singh H.,GADVASU
Comparative Clinical Pathology | Year: 2016

A marked variation, in terms of time lag gap of the depiction of visible clinical signs and the actual appearance of parasitic stages in body tissues, exists in experimental toxoplasmosis. Keeping this in mind, a study was designed to find out the time gap associated variability in appearance of tachyzoites in blood stream of infected mice. For this purpose, surface antigen 3 (SAG 3) was selected as a candidate to detect toxoplasmosis from blood samples taken at regular intervals from murine models. PCR was standardized to diagnose toxoplasmosis in ten inbred Swiss albino mice after experimental inoculation of 100 tachyzoites of laboratory maintained human RH strain of the parasite. The blood samples were subjected to PCR, in duplicates, using primers directed to the multicopy of SAG 3 gene at regular 12 -h interval post infection. The tachyzoites begin to appear between 36 h post infection and by 48 h blood of all the mice were found to be infected by tachyzoites. Alongside, other visible symptoms begin to appear after 72 h post infection. In conclusion, ample time gap was found regarding the initiation of clinical infection and actual appearance of visible clinical signs that could prove detrimental in final outcome of condition. © 2015, Springer-Verlag London.

Singh P.K.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Kumar S.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Bhat Z.F.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Kumar P.,GADVASU
Nutrition and Food Science | Year: 2015

Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the effect of Sorghum bicolour on the quality characteristics of chevon cutlets and to evaluate the effect of clove oil on the storage quality of aerobically packaged chevon cutlets.Design/methodology/approach: Three levels of sorghum flour, namely, 2, 4 and 6 per cent, were incorporated in the formulation, and the products developed were assessed for various physicochemical, sensory, texture and colour parameters. Chevon cutlets containing optimum level of sorghum flour were treated with clove oil (100 ppm) and evaluated for storage quality for 15 days under refrigerated conditions (4 ± 1°C). The products were analysed for various physicochemical, microbiological and sensory parameters.Findings: Crude fibre, texture parameters, i.e. hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, gumminess and product redness value, showed significant (p<0.05) increasing trend, whereas moisture per cent, fat content and overall acceptability decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing levels of incorporation. Chevon cutlets containing 6 per cent sorghum flour were optimized as best. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance value (mg malonaldehyde/kg), total plate count (cfu/g) and psychrophillic count (cfu/g) showed a significant increasing trend (p < 0.05), whereas all the sensory parameters decreased significantly (p < 0.05) with increasing days of storage. The products were successfully stored for 10 days under refrigerated conditions (4±1°C) without marked loss in quality.Originality/value: The paper has demonstrated the potential of sorghum as a fibre source in the development of designer chevon cutlets and effect of clove oil on the storage quality of aerobically packaged chevon cutlets. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Sudan V.,P.A. College | Tewari A.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Singh H.,GADVASU
Iranian Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2014

Background: Toxoplasma gondii, an apicomplexan parasite, is capable of infecting a broad range of intermediate warm-blooded hosts including humans. The parasite seems to be capable of altering the natural behavior of the host to favor its transmission in the environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the course, alterations in behavior along with normal kinetics of the abnormally induced experimental acute toxoplasmosis in murine models. Methods: Ten Swiss albino mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with 100 virulent RH strain tachyzoites and finally, the alterations in behavior were described and compared with other known alterations in humans and animals. Results: The behavior and the other symptoms of the acute toxoplasmosis were recorded. Such mice showed typical symptoms like normal coat, severe ascites with pendulous abdomen and tachypnoea exhibited by resting fore legs either on walls of the cage, or nozzle of water bottle or other resting mice and yielded a creamy colored cloudy natured peritoneal fluid on aspiration. Conclusions: Finally the alterations in behavior were described and compared with other known alterations in humans and animals. The study has generated some important data related to possible causes of behavioral alterations and generation of suitable strategies for control of these alterations in behavior vis-à-vis better understanding of the effect of acute infection of parasite on normal behavior of infected intermediate host.

Bhat Z.F.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Kumar S.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Kumar P.,GADVASU
Nutrition and Food Science | Year: 2015

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the potential of Aloe vera as a novel source of natural antioxidant and preservative in the muscle foods and to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera on the storage quality of aerobically packaged chicken nuggets.Design/methodology/approach: The Aloe vera pulp was incorporated at various levels, namely, 0, 5, 10 and 15 per cent, replacing lean meat in the formulation. The products were analyzed for proximate composition, physicochemical and sensory parameters. Chicken nuggets incorporated with optimum level of Aloe vera (10 per cent) along with control nuggets (0 per cent Aloe vera) were aerobically packaged and assessed for lipid oxidation, physicochemical and microbiological characteristics under refrigerated (4°C) conditions.Findings: pH, crude protein, ether extract and ash content of the nuggets showed significant (p < 0.05) decreasing trend with increasing levels of Aloe vera; however, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the moisture content, emulsion stability and cooking yield. Aloe vera-enriched nuggets showed significantly (p < 0.05) lower values than control nuggets for almost all the lipid oxidation and microbiological parameters, i.e. free fatty acid, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances value, total plate count, psychrophillic count and yeast and mould count. No significant (p > 0.05) difference was observed in the sensory parameters of the Aloe vera-enriched nuggets and the control samples throughout the period of storage.Originality/value: The paper has demonstrated the use of Aloe vera as a potential natural antioxidant without any marginal decline in the sensorial characteristics and nutritive value of the muscle foods. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Grewal K.K.,Sgn Khalsa College | Sandhu G.S.,Sgn Khalsa College | Kaur R.,Sgn Khalsa College | Brar R.S.,GADVASU | Sandhu H.S.,GADVASU
Toxicology International | Year: 2010

In the present investigation, the behavioral, morphological, and histopathological effects of cypermethrin, a widely used synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, was ascertained in male and female albino rats (Rattus norvegicus). Cypermethrin administered at repeated oral doses of 5 and 20 mg/kg/day for 30 days produced varying degree of mild to moderate toxic symptoms and behavioral changes in both male and female rats. The lower dose produced very mild toxicosis characterized by intermittent diarrhea, decreased feed intake, and thick eye discharge, whereas higher dose displayed mild to moderate toxicosis with diarrhea, decreased feed intake, loss of body weight, dyspnoea, ataxia, eye discharge, and salivation. Two female and one male albino rats died between 23 to 28 days after displaying signs of incoordination and tremors. Repeated oral doses of cypermethrin for 30 days enhanced the relative weight of liver and heart, but significantly decreased that of brain, kidneys, and testes. Microscopically, cypermethrin produced neuronal degeneration and increase in glial cells in brain, and disorganization of hepatic laminae, increase in sinusoid, and necrosis of hepatocytes in liver. Section of kidney displayed hemorrhage and sloughing off renal epithelial cell in the convoluted tubules, shrinkage of glomeruli, and necrosis of renal tubules. Repeated administration of cypermethrin also produced hemorrhages within myocardium, disruption of branching structure, and loss of striation of cardiac tissue; thickening of alveolar septa in lungs, partial to extensive loss of various stages of spermatogenesis in testes, and loss of follicular cells and oocytes in ovaries. The study suggested that repeated oral exposure of cypermethrin has considerable harmful effects on body organs in R. norvegicus.

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