Gadjah Mada University is a public research university located in Yogyakarta, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Officially founded on 19 December 1949, three years after its first lecture was given on 13 March 1946, it is the oldest and largest institution of higher education in Indonesia, and considered one of the most prestigious.Comprising 18 faculties and 27 research centers, UGM offers 68 undergraduate, 23 diploma, 104 master and specialist, and 43 doctorate study programs, ranging from the Social science to Engineering. The university has enrolled approximately 55,000 students, 1,187 foreign students, and has 2,500 faculty members. UGM maintains a campus of 360 acres , with facilities that include a stadium and a fitness center.UGM is implementing an "educopolis" campus atmosphere by creating a conducive learning environment—especially by developing multidisciplinary collaborations and by responding to ecological issues—in order to achieve the vision of the university. Some of the steps taken include construction of new dormitories on campus, development of pedestrian areas, reduction in pollution and vehicle exhaust emissions, restrictions on vehicles entering campus, development of parking pockets, and planting trees. Wikipedia.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2010.2.3.4-2 | Award Amount: 6.45M | Year: 2010
Neglected Infectious Diseases (NID) such as trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis receive less than 5% of the global investment for tropical diseases research. Clinical praxis in disease-endemic countries (DEC) is rarely evidence based and does not make use of the latest innovations in diagnostic technology. NIDrelated research on diagnostics is particularly underfunded, and diagnostic tools are lacking for a number of NID. The aim of this proposal is to bridge the gap between existing technological innovation in diagnostics and clinical care practice for NID in resource-poor settings. The specific objectives are to develop simple, cost-effective diagnosis-treatment algorithms for three NID-related clinical syndromes: the persistent fever, the neurological and the digestive syndromes. Evidence-based algorithms for the primary care level will be designed with a patient-centred approach, following guidance from DEC stakeholders and making the best possible use of existing assays and treatments. Relevant diagnostic technology and diagnostic platforms will be introduced according to the specific epidemiological contexts in Africa and South-Asia. The research consortium brings together a network of clinical epidemiologists, a diagnostics development group, several partners from academia and SMEs. The consortium further includes workpackages on reference laboratory, economic evaluation, quality assurance and translation to policy. By developing accurate and affordable diagnostic platforms and by optimizing diagnostic-treatment algorithms, this project will rationalise treatment use, circumvent progression to severe presentations and thereby reduce NID morbidity/mortality and hinder the emergence of resistances. The project will result in two main deliverables: policy recommendation for health authorities in DEC, and a series of innovative diagnostic platforms.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: HEALTH.2011.2.3.3-2 | Award Amount: 7.70M | Year: 2011
The overall concept of this research project is to assemble a consortium of international experts working together to develop new and innovative tools to be applied to the control of dengue in a global context. The core of the application focuses on parallel strategies aimed at: improving diagnosis and clinical management of dengue through two linked work packages designed a) to identify readily available clinical and laboratory parameters and/or viral and immunological markers, that differentiate between dengue and other common febrile illness within 3 days of fever onset, and b) to identify any of the available markers that are predictive of the likelihood of evolving to a more severe disease course assessing the risk of dengue spread though linked work packages focused on a) mapping and modelling techniques to define the current extent of dengue disease globally and to evaluate possible scenarios of spread or risk to previously uninfected regions in the future, and b) developing effective and affordable early warning and outbreak response systems. These four work packages are supported by a fifth work package dedicated to networking and translational activities to ensure that outputs from the various research activities are used to maximal advantage.
News Article | February 15, 2017
The coexistence of both undernutrition and overweight/obesity, a phenomenon called double burden of malnutrition, is a global public health challenge existing at all levels from the individual to the population, especially in low-to middle-income countries. Research on malnutrition in Indonesia found that about 20 percent of households exhibit double burden of malnutrition. Umeå University researcher Masoud Vaezghasemi emphasizes the importance of social and contextual determinants in fighting against both forms of malnutrition. "In many ways, Indonesia is a prime example to study these phenomena," says Masoud Vaezghasemi. "As the fourth most populous country in the world, Indonesia is undergoing very fast transitions - economically, demographically, health-wise and also nutrition-wise. The Indonesian diet transformed very fast from its traditional diets high in cereal and fibre towards Western pattern diets high in sugars, fat, and animal-source foods. This caused a swift increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity while undernutrition remains a great public health concern." The researchers started off with exploring the distributions of body mass index (BMI) across different socioeconomic groups in Indonesia using the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) dataset, which stands out as one of the biggest longitudinal health surveys outside the OECD. According to the results: "At the contextual level, recognition of increased variation among households is important for creating strategies that respond to different needs of individuals within the same household," says Masoud Vaezghasemi. In a subsequent sub-study, Masoud Vaezghasemi picked up on the findings in regards to gender relations and households' nutritional status. He conducted a qualitative study over two months in 2013 which included focus group discussions among rural and urban community members. The study was done in Indonesia's capital Jakarta, which is the place where the researchers had identified the highest percentage of dual burden of malnutrition, and in Central Java, where said share was the lowest. The overall results captured the significance of gendered power relations, generational relations, and the emerging obesogenic environment. According to Masoud Vaezghasemi, the findings have three main implications: The first three sub-studies in Masoud Vaezghasemi doctoral thesis were based on the IFLS dataset. The IFLS is conducted by the RAND Corporation in collaboration with other international and Indonesian partners such as Gadjah Mada University. Two of those sub-studies were conducted in collaboration with Professor SV Subramanian from the Harvard T.H. Chen School of Public Health in Boston, where Masoud spend one semester as a researcher.
News Article | March 9, 2016
Few scientists know that, instead of buying their lab equipment, they can often build it much more cheaply — and customize their creations — by following ‘open-hardware’ instructions that are freely available online. Fifty enthusiasts who gathered last week at CERN, Europe’s particle-physics laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland, are hoping to remedy researchers’ lack of awareness about open science hardware. At the first conference dedicated to the field, they met to compare creations — and to thrash out a road map to promote the widespread manufacturing and sharing of labware. “We want open hardware to become a normal part of the scientific process,” says Shannon Dosemagen, a co-organizer of the conference who is executive director of the non-profit citizen-science community Public Lab. Proponents of open hardware — named by analogy to ‘open software’ in computer science — have already created free online designs for dozens of pieces of labware, taking advantage of manufacturing technologies such as 3D printers and laser-cutting machines. They argue that sharing designs for others to adapt can vastly accelerate the progress of science. But this share-all do-it-yourself (DIY) philosophy is yet to become mainstream. “The majority of scientists are still waiting to get involved,” says Joshua Pearce, an engineer at Michigan Technological University in Houghton, who two years ago published a book for scientists on how to create a low-cost lab. The open-hardware movement can already point to much success in science, says conference co-organizer Jenny Molloy, who coordinates OpenPlant, a synthetic-biology centre at the University of Cambridge, UK. Citizen-science projects, schools and researchers who lack money to buy expensive equipment have been particularly quick to adopt it. In 2009, for example, Irfan Prijambada, a microbiologist at Gadjah Mada University in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, was able to equip his lab with tissue-culture hoods and microscopes for less than 10% of their commercial price, using designs posted by a life-sciences-community platform called Hackteria. Online designs have been created for a wide range of labware, from DNA-amplifying PCR machines to fluorescence imaging microscopes (see ‘How to make a … digitally controlled syringe pump’). (Molloy says that the basic principles behind a lot of labware are not patented, so intellectual-property conflicts are rare.) For some kit — such as scanning tunnelling microscopes — the fabrication process is too complex to take place in the lab, but Pearce thinks that these, too, will eventually become open source. And because these blueprints are openly shared — allowing anyone to critique and improve them — the quality of equipment is often at least as good as or even better than what is available commercially, he says. For researchers, this ability to tinker with equipment is the main advantage of open-source sharing. “If it’s open source, I can adapt it and fix it. That’s most important to me,” says Tobias Wenzel, a biophysics PhD student at the University of Cambridge. But other scientists’ reluctance to dive into DIY may stem from doubts about whether open hardware can faithfully produce the validated, standardized performance of commercial equipment. Too often, the documentation that accompanies designs — intended to calibrate the equipment’s performance against known standards and describe its use — is unclear or incomplete, conference attendees heard. A community-standard or best-practice guide could use a checklist to ensure that designers cover all the necessary bases, says Wenzel. “It needs to be something that says: ‘if you follow this procedure, this will work and you’ll be able to get high precision, high accuracy and low error’,” says Pearce. The problem is that sharing work in enough detail for anyone else to follow takes time and effort, but provides little formal scientific credit. “It’s one thing to build something for one’s own research, but to make it so it’s easy for others to replicate is much more difficult,” says Ryan Fobel, an engineer at the University of Toronto, Canada, who helped to develop an open-source platform for doing biology and chemistry on a chip, known as DropBot. To this end, at the Geneva conference researchers debated ways to assign credit to the designers of open hardware. Some would like to see a citation system for designs, or want journals to publish more research papers that outline designs. A central repository for open science hardware might help: CERN hosts a repository for electronics open hardware, and the US National Institutes of Health has a 3D-printing repository with a labware section. But no single repository collates everything. Because many scientists won’t want to build devices themselves, taking open hardware mainstream will need to involve non-profit organizations and companies that can supply the kit, notes Francois Grey, a physicist at the University of Geneva and conference co-organizer. Firms such as OpenTrons in Brooklyn, New York, which makes automated pipetting systems, already both design open-source lab equipment and sell ready-made kit built from open-source designs. But because such companies give away their designs, figuring out a solid business model is a challenge, adds Javier Serrano, an engineer at CERN who helped to pioneer the lab’s Open Hardware Licence, which allows developers to ensure that all future modifications are documented and shared. Companies might make money by providing support for open hardware, or by conducting quality-assurance checks and validation tests that allow them to offer warranty-like guarantees on products, Pearce suggests. And a collection of success stories might also help scientists to convince their institutions — which may be accustomed to patenting in-house inventions — of the value of forming open-hardware spin-offs, adds Molloy. Pearce says that he dreams of a day when every published scientific article will instruct its readers not just on experimental methods, but also on how to build the equipment that the study requires. It’s something that will need the cooperation of funders to become a reality. Existing large-scale equipment grants tend to pay for single instruments, but Pearce would like to see the money spent on open-source hardware, which he says could bring down prices and — over time — improve designs.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: HEALTH.2011.3.4-2 | Award Amount: 2.22M | Year: 2012
The major causes of poor health are rooted in our societies. Governments are encouraged to lead global action on the social determinants of health with the aim of achieving health equity. This requires setting-specific, timely and relevant evidence on the relationship between determinants and outcomes which is yet limited, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This calls for research on social determinants of health and demands capacity-building activities to enable such research. INTREC collaboration action is envisioned to address health inequities in LMICs of Africa and Asia by developing sustainable capacity for research for health and its social determinants, and by facilitating translation of research findings into policy and practice in both regions. INTREC also advocates for gender equity in health research by promoting women scientists. INTREC activities will cover three African (Ghana, South Africa, Tanzania) and four Asian countries (Indonesia, Viet Nam, Bangladesh, India) and will be concentrated in two training centres in Ghana and Indonesia. The centers are to become focal points for research on social determinants of health in LMICs, thus enabling extensive South-South and North-South networks and research cooperation. INTREC approach to capacity-building is holistic and includes both, providing state-of-the-art region-specific training for young researchers, and educating decision-makers on social determinants of health. The work will be carried by a strong Consortium team of five university-based centres in Sweden, Germany, Netherlands, the United States of America and Indonesia and by one research network of demographic surveillance sites in LMICs with headquarters in Ghana (INDEPTH). INTREC approach will be evaluated at the end of a 3,5-year period. Based on the results of this evaluation, a conceptual framework on how to build sustainable capacity for research on health and its social determinants that could be applied in other LMICs will be developed.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-FP-SICA | Phase: SSH.2012.4.1-2 | Award Amount: 3.05M | Year: 2012
The project SEATIDE brings together Southeast Asian (SEA) and European researchers with two objectives: research and network development. Research. Using locally focused field study methodologies, our experience of research on integration frameworks in Southeast Asia shows that historical and contemporary integrative processes include some groups and exclude others. Exclusion of communities presents risks to human development and security, even of framework disintegration. This understanding directs our research question: in processes of integration, who is excluded? We address it in thematic work packages with relevant qualitative/quantitative case studies guided by a common analytical framework focused on four key issues: diversity, prosperity, knowledge and security. Attention to SEAs sub-regions and globalisation/transnational issues defines our approach. Structuring the European Research Area (ERA). On the basis of existing structures the unique EFEO network of 10 field centres in SEA, plus ECAF, EUROSEAS, ASEF we work for the development of effective, integrated networks of EU-SEA research, embracing Western European and ASEAN-founder countries alongside Eastern/Southern Europe and post-communist SEA nations. Broad dissemination of results is essential to the projects success, through conferences, publications, press coverage and policy briefs. Our recent and innovative research serves to improve the dialogue initiated in the EFEOs FP7 project IDEAS between social scientists and policymakers.
Rohman A.,Gadjah Mada University |
Che Man Y.B.,University Putra Malaysia
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011
Currently, the authentication of virgin coconut oil (VCO) has become very important due to the possible adulteration of VCO with cheaper plant oils such as corn (CO) and sunflower (SFO) oils. Methods involving Fourier transform mid infrared (FT-MIR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics techniques (partial least square (PLS) and discriminant analysis (DA)) were developed for quantification and classification of CO and SFO in VCO. MIR spectra of oil samples were recorded at frequency regions of 4000-650 cm-1 on horizontal attenuated total reflectance (HATR) attachment of FTIR. DA can successfully classify VCO and that adulterated with CO and SFO using 10 principal components. Furthermore, PLS model correlates the actual and FTIR estimated values of oil adulterants (CO and SFO) with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.999. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hadiati D.R.,Gadjah Mada University
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012
The risk of maternal mortality and morbidity (particularly postoperative infection) is higher for caesarean section than for vaginal birth. With the increase in caesarean section, it is important that the risks to the mother are minimised as far as possible. This review focuses on different forms and methods for preoperative skin preparation to prevent infection. To compare the effects of different agent forms and methods of preoperative skin preparation for preventing postcaesarean infection. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (2 January 2012) and the reference lists of all included studies and review articles Randomised and quasi-randomised trials, including cluster-randomised trials, evaluating any type of preoperative skin preparation agents, forms and methods of application for caesarean section. Three review authors independently assessed all potential studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted the data using a predesigned form. Data were checked for accuracy. We included five trials with a total of 1462 women. No difference was found in the primary outcomes of either wound infection or endometritis. Two trials of 1294 women, compared drape with no drape (one trial using iodine and the other using chlorhexidine) and found no significant difference in wound infection (risk ratio (RR) 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97 to 1.71). One trial of 79 women comparing alcohol scrub and iodophor drape with iodophor scrub without drape reported no wound infection in either group. One trial of 50 women comparing parachlorometaxylenol plus iodine with iodine alone reported no significant difference in wound infection (RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.04 to 2.99).Two trials reported endometritis, one trial comparing alcohol scrub and iodophor drape with iodophor scrub only found no significant difference (RR 1.62; 95% CI 0.29 to 9.16). The other trial of 50 women comparing parachlorometaxylenol plus iodine with iodine alone reported no significant difference in endometritis (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.56 to 1.38). No difference was found in the secondary outcome of either length of stay or reduction of skin bacteria colony count. No trial reported other maternal outcomes, i.e. maternal mortality, repeat surgery and re-admission resulting from infection. One trial, which was only available as an abstract, investigated the effect of skin preparation on neonatal adverse events and found cord blood iodine concentration to be significantly higher in the iodine group. Little evidence is available from the included randomised controlled trials to evaluate different agent forms, concentrations and methods of skin preparation for preventing infection following caesarean section. Therefore, it is not yet clear what sort of skin preparation may be most efficient for preventing postcaesarean wound and surgical site infection. There is a need for high-quality, properly designed randomised controlled trials with larger sample sizes in this field. High priority questions include comparing types of antiseptic (especially iodine versus chlorhexidine), the timing and duration of applying the antiseptic (especially previous night versus day of surgery, and application methods (scrubbing, swabbing and draping).
Ilman M.N.,Gadjah Mada University
International Journal of Fatigue | Year: 2014
Aluminium alloy AA 2024-T3 has been used in aircraft construction for over the years due to its high strength to weight ratio, extremely good damage tolerance and high resistance to fatigue crack propagation. However, this material is susceptible to environmetally assisted fatigue crack propagation (EAFCP) when it is exposed to water vapour and chloride solution. In aerospace applications, a control of EAFCP is usually carried out by a protective coating system that contains a corrosion inhibitor. In the present investigation, the behaviour of EAFCP of aluminium alloy AA 2024-T3 in 3.5% NaCl solution containing various levels of chromate (Cr2O4 2-) inhibitor, typically 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% has been studied using centre-cracked tension (CCT) specimens in the longitudinal-transverse (LT) orientation. The fatigue experiment was carried out using a constant amplitude with stress ratio (R) of 0.1 and frequency of 11 Hz. The nature of chromate inhibitor in chloride environment was studied using electrochemical polarisation method in combination with optical microscopy and SEM equipped with EDX-spectrometer. Results of this investigation show that the additions of chromate inhibitor to the bulk 3.5% NaCl solution tend to reduce corrosion rate, increase passivity as indicated by the presence of anodic passivation plateaus in potentiodynamic polarisation curves and lower fatigue crack propagation rate (da/dN) of AA 2024-T3 at low ΔK. The mechanism of chromate inhibition on AA 2024-T3 aluminium alloy is complex involving mechanical, chemical and microstructural interactions and is discussed in the present investigation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gunamantha M.,Ganesha University of Education |
Sarto,Gadjah Mada University
Renewable Energy | Year: 2012
Various methods of solid waste treatment are available. However, due to heterogeneity characteristic of solid waste, determined the best means to manage solid waste in environmental view of point is not straightforward. In this case, solid waste management scenarios and an environmental analysis tool are required. This study compared various energetic valorization options with each other using the simplified Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. These scenarios were landfilling without energy recovery as a representative of existing solid waste management, landfilling with energy recovery, combination of incineration and anaerobic digestion, combination of gasification and anaerobic digestion, direct incineration, and direct gasification. A case study area in a typical KARTAMANTUL (acronym of three cities: Yogyakarta, Sleman, Bantul) intercity region in province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. One ton of solid waste treated was defined as the functional unit of the systems studied. The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) analysis was done by including field and laboratory survey to characterize solid waste in area study and using emission factors which were adopted from literature to estimate environmental burdens for each scenario. Inventory's result was classified into impact categories, i.e. global warming, acidification, eutrophication, and photochemical oxidant formation. The indicators of categories were quantified by using the equivalence factors of relevant emissions to determine the environmental performance of each scenario. The study shown that in most of the impact categories (except acidification), a scenario with direct gasification indicated the best environmental profile. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to examine change in outcomes for a variety of organic biowaste inputs, but had no significant effect on the overall result. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.