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Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Gadjah Mada University is a public research university located in Yogyakarta, Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Officially founded on 19 December 1949, three years after its first lecture was given on 13 March 1946, it is the oldest and largest institution of higher education in Indonesia, and considered one of the most prestigious.Comprising 18 faculties and 27 research centers, UGM offers 68 undergraduate, 23 diploma, 104 master and specialist, and 43 doctorate study programs, ranging from the Social science to Engineering. The university has enrolled approximately 55,000 students, 1,187 foreign students, and has 2,500 faculty members. UGM maintains a campus of 360 acres , with facilities that include a stadium and a fitness center.UGM is implementing an "educopolis" campus atmosphere by creating a conducive learning environment—especially by developing multidisciplinary collaborations and by responding to ecological issues—in order to achieve the vision of the university. Some of the steps taken include construction of new dormitories on campus, development of pedestrian areas, reduction in pollution and vehicle exhaust emissions, restrictions on vehicles entering campus, development of parking pockets, and planting trees. Wikipedia.

Raharjo S.,Gadjah Mada University
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society

The effect of chlorophyll in photo-oxidation of virgin coconut oil (VCO) during production and storage was studied. Photo-oxidation during VCO production was performed under accelerated conditions using fluorescent lights (4,000 lux) for 8 h. Peroxide values (PVs) and chlorophyll contents of the samples were measured at 1 h intervals. To compare the photo-oxidation during storage, VCO samples were separately stored under ambient and normal room light intensity (380-400 lux) for up to 4 months and PVs were measured weekly. The results indicated that relatively low light intensity during the settling stage of VCO production had no significant effect on photo-oxidation. Photo-oxidation of VCO, however, was observed during storage when exposed to high intensity fluorescent light. The degradation of chlorophyll content in VCO was evident during exposure to a high fluorescent light intensity which was accompanied by high lipid peroxide accumulation. A significant negative correlation between PV and chlorophyll content was found in VCO without light protection. The storage of VCO significantly increased the PV after 10 weeks. This study confirmed that chlorophyll which is naturally present in VCO even at a very low level (less than 0.1 ppm) could initiate a photo-oxidation reaction leading to quality deterioration during prolonged storage or display at retailers. © 2010 AOCS. Source

Gunamantha M.,Ganesha University of Education | Sarto,Gadjah Mada University
Renewable Energy

Various methods of solid waste treatment are available. However, due to heterogeneity characteristic of solid waste, determined the best means to manage solid waste in environmental view of point is not straightforward. In this case, solid waste management scenarios and an environmental analysis tool are required. This study compared various energetic valorization options with each other using the simplified Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. These scenarios were landfilling without energy recovery as a representative of existing solid waste management, landfilling with energy recovery, combination of incineration and anaerobic digestion, combination of gasification and anaerobic digestion, direct incineration, and direct gasification. A case study area in a typical KARTAMANTUL (acronym of three cities: Yogyakarta, Sleman, Bantul) intercity region in province of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. One ton of solid waste treated was defined as the functional unit of the systems studied. The Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) analysis was done by including field and laboratory survey to characterize solid waste in area study and using emission factors which were adopted from literature to estimate environmental burdens for each scenario. Inventory's result was classified into impact categories, i.e. global warming, acidification, eutrophication, and photochemical oxidant formation. The indicators of categories were quantified by using the equivalence factors of relevant emissions to determine the environmental performance of each scenario. The study shown that in most of the impact categories (except acidification), a scenario with direct gasification indicated the best environmental profile. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to examine change in outcomes for a variety of organic biowaste inputs, but had no significant effect on the overall result. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

The impacts of wood harvest, biomass removal and inter-rotation site management practices on productivity of Acacia mangium in South Sumatra were studied over 12 years across successive rotations. The productivity measured as MAI increased from 29.4 m3 ha-1 year-1 in the first to 48.0 m3 ha-1 year-1 in the second rotation. Whole tree harvesting (total stem, branches and leaves) caused a 21 % reduction in volume compared to harvesting merchantable wood alone in the next rotation. The rates of nutrients accumulation in trees were highest during the first year of growth, and declined from age 2 years. Significant amounts of nutrients were recycled through litter fall from 1 year after planting. Results highlight the importance of management which promotes nutrient supply on stand growth. Removal of slash and litter lowered soil pH, by about 0.1 unit. A small reduction was also found in soil organic carbon and nitrogen in the top soil during the first 3-4 years but values returned to pre-harvest levels by the end of the rotation. Extractable soil phosphorus and exchangeable cations decreased by the end of second rotation but these measures underestimate the nutrient pools available for A. mangium. These findings along with results from other studies have helped to implement operations which promote conservation of site resources for sustainable production in the region. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Hadiati D.R.,Gadjah Mada University
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online)

The risk of maternal mortality and morbidity (particularly postoperative infection) is higher for caesarean section than for vaginal birth. With the increase in caesarean section, it is important that the risks to the mother are minimised as far as possible. This review focuses on different forms and methods for preoperative skin preparation to prevent infection. To compare the effects of different agent forms and methods of preoperative skin preparation for preventing postcaesarean infection. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (2 January 2012) and the reference lists of all included studies and review articles Randomised and quasi-randomised trials, including cluster-randomised trials, evaluating any type of preoperative skin preparation agents, forms and methods of application for caesarean section. Three review authors independently assessed all potential studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted the data using a predesigned form. Data were checked for accuracy. We included five trials with a total of 1462 women. No difference was found in the primary outcomes of either wound infection or endometritis. Two trials of 1294 women, compared drape with no drape (one trial using iodine and the other using chlorhexidine) and found no significant difference in wound infection (risk ratio (RR) 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.97 to 1.71). One trial of 79 women comparing alcohol scrub and iodophor drape with iodophor scrub without drape reported no wound infection in either group. One trial of 50 women comparing parachlorometaxylenol plus iodine with iodine alone reported no significant difference in wound infection (RR 0.33; 95% CI 0.04 to 2.99).Two trials reported endometritis, one trial comparing alcohol scrub and iodophor drape with iodophor scrub only found no significant difference (RR 1.62; 95% CI 0.29 to 9.16). The other trial of 50 women comparing parachlorometaxylenol plus iodine with iodine alone reported no significant difference in endometritis (RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.56 to 1.38). No difference was found in the secondary outcome of either length of stay or reduction of skin bacteria colony count. No trial reported other maternal outcomes, i.e. maternal mortality, repeat surgery and re-admission resulting from infection. One trial, which was only available as an abstract, investigated the effect of skin preparation on neonatal adverse events and found cord blood iodine concentration to be significantly higher in the iodine group. Little evidence is available from the included randomised controlled trials to evaluate different agent forms, concentrations and methods of skin preparation for preventing infection following caesarean section. Therefore, it is not yet clear what sort of skin preparation may be most efficient for preventing postcaesarean wound and surgical site infection. There is a need for high-quality, properly designed randomised controlled trials with larger sample sizes in this field. High priority questions include comparing types of antiseptic (especially iodine versus chlorhexidine), the timing and duration of applying the antiseptic (especially previous night versus day of surgery, and application methods (scrubbing, swabbing and draping). Source

to assess the ability of curcuminoid from Curcuma domestica Val in reducing the cycloxygenase-2 secretion by synovial fluid's monocytes compared to diclofenac sodium in patients with osteoarthritis. this was a prospective randomized open end blinded evaluation (PROBE) study. The subjects were patients with knee osteoarthritis who were divided randomly into two groups, the first group received 30 mg 3 times daily of curcuminoid and the second group received 25 mg 3 times daily of diclofenac sodium. The joints aspiration was done and the secretion of cycloxygenase-2 enzyme by synovial fluid's monocytes was evaluated by scoring method before and after 4 weeks of treatments. a total of 80 patients with knee osteoarthritis were enrolled. In curcuminoid group the average scores were 1.84±0.37 and 1.15±0.28 respectively (p<0.001). In diclofenac group the average scores were 1.79±0.38 and 1.12±0.27 respectively (p<0.001). In curcuminoid group the decreasing score of cycloxygenase-2 secretion was 0.70±0.51 while in diclofenac group was 0.67±0.45. There was no significant difference in decreasing the score of cycloxygenase enzyme secretion between both treatment groups (p=0.89). the ability of curcuminoid from Curcuma domestica Val. rhizome extract was not significantly different compared to diclofenac sodium in suppressing the secretion of cycloxygenase-2 enzyme by synovial fluid's monocytes. Source

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