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Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia

Pascual E.H.,Gabriel Rene Moreno Autonomous University
2015 10th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies, CISTI 2015 | Year: 2015

Discussed in this papers a group of CATTs (Computer Assisted Auditing Techniques) applied in financial institutions to prevent and detect fraud, these techniques can support areas such as Internal Audit or Risk for evidence of possible fraud and forming a line of defense against money laundering and laundering of illicit proceeds. Among the benefits that provide tools for data analysis are: to import databases from different platforms to work with large volumes of data (in many cases the entire population), using functions that detect evidence of errors or fraud, making processes with such immediacy that allows entering a stage of Continuous Auditing in the company. It is noteworthy that there are several tools for data analysis that allows you to perform the processes to be described later. However applications have been developed with Caseware IDEA version 9.2, for the facilities that this provides for non-specialists in Computer such as financial audit, they can generate their own internal control processes without having to rely on the services of the IT (Information Technology). © 2015 AISTI.

Tella J.L.,CSIC - Donana Biological Station | Rojas A.,Gabriel Rene Moreno Autonomous University | Carrete M.,Pablo De Olavide University | Hiraldo F.,CSIC - Donana Biological Station
Biological Conservation | Year: 2013

The IUCN Red List is challenged with assessing the conservation status of species on which reliable demographic and distribution parameters are lacking. The hotly debated SAFE index, however, measures the "species' ability to forestall extinction" and only requires information on population size. Nonetheless, both conservation assessment systems neglect the role of non-breeding population fractions in conservation. We conducted simple surveys to ascertain the spatial and population structure and conservation threats of the Endangered red-fronted macaw Ara rubrogenys, endemic to the Bolivian Andes. The area of occupancy (ca. 2600Km2) encompassed eight breeding and six non-breeding areas, occupied by 807 individuals. By combining population-fraction censuses with the proportion of juveniles (8.6%), we inferred a breeding population of less than 100 pairs clumped in 38-40 nesting sites, with non-breeders representing ca. 80% of the population. While this increase in data quality raises questions as to whether the species should be upgraded to Critically Endangered, the SAFE index rendered questionable guidance for conservation triage. Conservation threats were spatially identified according to spatio-temporal and life-stage population structures and seasonal changes in habitat use. Several sources of habitat loss were widespread but, contrary to expectation, habitat-use models indicated that red-fronted macaws were not tied to forest remnants. Instead, they made use of agricultural lands resulting in conflicts with farmers. Awareness campaigns should focus on a few selected locations to resolve this conflict and reduce the uptake of individuals for use as pets, as the most effective way to increase population size in the medium-term. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Lardeux F.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement Ird | Depickere S.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement Ird | Aliaga C.,Institute Of Recherche Pour Le Developpement Ird | Chavez T.,Instituto Nacional Of Laboratorios Of Salud Inlasa | Zambrana L.,Gabriel Rene Moreno Autonomous University
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

Background: Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in the southern cone countries. Present control strategies based on indoor and outdoor residual insecticide spraying are not sufficient to control disease transmission, particularly in Bolivia. Techniques based on the management of the human environment may be good alternatives or supplements. Methods: Social and entomological surveys were carried out in four villages of Bolivia situated in the dry inter-Andean Valleys and the Chaco region. Risk factors for house infestation by T. infestanswere identified, and an ecohealth intervention based on education and community participation was carried out to reduce the risks of house infestation. It consisted of implementing simple and low cost vector control techniques such as coating of mud walls, cleaning activities and removal of poultry that enter rooms to lay eggs. Results: The eco-health intervention significantly reduced the number of infested bedrooms, the mean abundance of T. infestans in bedrooms and beds, especially in the Chaco region. Mud wall coating was well accepted and could be proposed as a supplementary tool to the National Program of Chagas Disease Control to enhance the effects of insecticide sprayings. Conclusions: Even if cleaning activities were still neglected, community participation proved to be effective in reducing house infestation. © The author 2015.

Myers J.A.,Washington University in St. Louis | Chase J.M.,Washington University in St. Louis | Jimenez I.,Missouri Botanical Garden | Jorgensen P.M.,Missouri Botanical Garden | And 3 more authors.
Ecology Letters | Year: 2013

Site-to-site variation in species composition (β-diversity) generally increases from low- to high-diversity regions. Although biogeographical differences in community assembly mechanisms may explain this pattern, random sampling effects can create this pattern through differences in regional species pools. Here, we compared assembly mechanisms between spatially extensive networks of temperate and tropical forest plots with highly divergent species pools (46 vs. 607 species). After controlling for sampling effects, β-diversity of woody plants was similar and higher than expected by chance in both forests, reflecting strong intraspecific aggregation. However, different mechanisms appeared to explain aggregation in the two forests. In the temperate forest, aggregation reflected stronger environmental correlations, suggesting an important role for species-sorting (e.g. environmental filtering) processes, whereas in the tropics, aggregation reflected stronger spatial correlations, more likely reflecting dispersal limitation. We suggest that biogeographical differences in the relative importance of different community assembly mechanisms contribute to these striking gradients in global biodiversity.© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

Doughty C.E.,University of Oxford | Metcalfe D.B.,Lund University | Girardin C.A.J.,University of Oxford | Amezquita F.F.,National University of Costa Rica | And 13 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015

In 2005 and 2010 the Amazon basin experienced two strong droughts, driven by shifts in the tropical hydrological regime possibly associated with global climate change, as predicted by some global models. Tree mortality increased after the 2005 drought, and regional atmospheric inversion modelling showed basin-wide decreases in CO 2 uptake in 2010 compared with 2011 (ref. 5). But the response of tropical forest carbon cycling to these droughts is not fully understood and there has been no detailed multi-site investigation in situ. Here we use several years of data from a network of thirteen 1-ha forest plots spread throughout South America, where each component of net primary production (NPP), autotrophic respiration and heterotrophic respiration is measured separately, to develop a better mechanistic understanding of the impact of the 2010 drought on the Amazon forest. We find that total NPP remained constant throughout the drought. However, towards the end of the drought, autotrophic respiration, especially in roots and stems, declined significantly compared with measurements in 2009 made in the absence of drought, with extended decreases in autotrophic respiration in the three driest plots. In the year after the drought, total NPP remained constant but the allocation of carbon shifted towards canopy NPP and away from fine-root NPP. Both leaf-level and plot-level measurements indicate that severe drought suppresses photosynthesis. Scaling these measurements to the entire Amazon basin with rainfall data, we estimate that drought suppressed Amazon-wide photosynthesis in 2010 by 0.38 petagrams of carbon (0.23-0.53 petagrams of carbon). Overall, we find that during this drought, instead of reducing total NPP, trees prioritized growth by reducing autotrophic respiration that was unrelated to growth. This suggests that trees decrease investment in tissue maintenance and defence, in line with eco-evolutionary theories that trees are competitively disadvantaged in the absence of growth. We propose that weakened maintenance and defence investment may, in turn, cause the increase in post-drought tree mortality observed at our plots. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

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