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Blum K.,Florida College | Blum K.,G and listic Addiction Treatment Center | Werner T.,University of Florida | Carnes S.,Pine Grove Behavioral Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs | Year: 2012

The nucleus accumbens, a site within the ventral striatum, plays a prominent role in mediating the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, food, sex, and other addictions. Indeed, it is generally believed that this structure mandates motivated behaviors such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity, which are elicited by natural rewards and other strong incentive stimuli. This article focuses on sex addiction, but we hypothesize that there is a common underlying mechanism of action for the powerful effects that all addictions have on human motivation. That is, biological drives may have common molecular genetic antecedents, which if impaired, lead to aberrant behaviors. Based on abundant scientific support, we further hypothesize that dopaminergic genes, and possibly other candidate neurotransmitter-related gene polymorphisms, affect both hedonic and anhedonic behavioral outcomes. Genotyping studies already have linked gene polymorphic associations with alcohol and drug addictions and obesity, and we anticipate that future genotyping studies of sex addicts will provide evidence for polymorphic associations with specific clustering of sexual typologies based on clinical instrument assessments. We recommend that scientists and clinicians embark on research coupling the use of neuroimaging tools with dopaminergic agonistic agents to target specific gene polymorphisms systematically for normalizing hyper- or hypo-sexual behaviors. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Westcott W.,Quincy College | Varghese J.,Quincy Medical Center | DiNubile N.,University of Pennsylvania | Moynihan N.,Quincy Medical Center | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Exercise Physiology Online | Year: 2011

This study examined the effects of exercise alone and exercise and nutritional supplementation on lumbar spine bone mineral density, lean weight, and resting blood pressure. The subjects (N = 52) were placed into a Control Group [no exercise or nutritional supplements], an Exercise Group [strength training and aerobic activity; no nutritional supplementation]; and an Exercise and Nutrition Group [strength training and aerobic activity; supplementary protein, calcium, and vitamin D]. Changes in lumbar spine bone mineral density did not attain significance. Lean weight increased significantly in the Exercise and Nutrition Group. Resting SBP and DBP decreased significantly in the Exercise and Nutrition Group. These findings indicate that strength training, aerobic exercise, and nutritional supplements may be more effective than just exercise for increasing lean weight and for reducing resting blood pressure.

Blum K.,Florida College | Blum K.,National Institute of Holistic Studies | Blum K.,G and listic Addiction Treatment Center | Blum K.,LifeGen Inc | And 17 more authors.
Postgraduate Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: It is well established that in both food- and drug-addicted individuals there is  "dopamine resistance" associated with the DRD2 gene A1 allele. Based on earlier studies, evidence is emerging wherein the potential of utilizing a natural, nonaddicting, safe, putative D2 agonist may play a significant role in the recovery of individuals with reward deficiency syndrome, including those addicted to psychoactive chemicals. Findings: Positive outcomes demonstrated by quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) imaging in a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study involving oral Synaptose Complex KB220Z™ showed an increase of alpha waves and low beta wave activity in the parietal brain region. Using t statistics, significant differences observed between placebo and Synaptose Complex KB220Z™ consistently occurred in the frontal regions after week 1 and then again after week 2 of analyses (P = 0.03). This is the first report to demonstrate involvement of the prefrontal cortex in the qEEG response to a natural putative D2 agonist (Synaptose Complex KB220Z™), especially evident in dopamine D2 A1 allele subjects. Independently, we have further supported this finding with an additional study of 3 serious polydrug abusers undergoing protracted abstinence who carried the DRD2 A1 allele. Significant qEEG differences were found between those who received 1 dose of placebo compared with those who were administered Synaptose Complex KB220Z™. Synaptose Complex KB220Z™ induced positive regulation of the dysregulated electrical activity of the brain in these addicts. The results are indicative of a phase change from low amplitude or low power in the brain to a more regulated state by increasing an average of 6.169 mV2 across the prefrontal cortical region. In the first experiment we found that while 50% of the subjects carried the DRD2 A1 allele, 100% carried ≥ 1 risk allele. Specifically, based on the proposed addiction risk score for these 14 subjects, 72% had moderate-to-severe addiction risk. Similar findings were obtained by repeating the experiment in 3 additional currently abstinent polydrug abusers carrying the DRD2 A1 allele. Conclusion: This seminal work will provide important information that may ultimately lead to significant improvement in the recovery of individuals with psychostimulant and polydrug abuse problems, specifically those with genetically induced dopamine deficiency. Based on this small sample size, we are proposing that with necessary large populations supporting these initial results, and possibly even additional candidate genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms, we may eventually have the clinical ability to classify severity according to genotype and possession of risk alleles, along with offering a safe, nonaddicting, natural dopaminergic receptor agonist that potentially upregulates instead of downregulates dopaminergic receptors, preferably the D2 subtype. © Postgraduate Medicine.

Chen A.L.C.,Chang Jung Christian University | Blum K.,University of Florida | Blum K.,G and listic Addiction Treatment Center | Blum K.,LifeGen Inc | And 8 more authors.
Food and Function | Year: 2012

While there is a considerable body of literature correlating the role of dopaminergic genes and obesity, body mass index, body type, overeating, carbohydrate binging, energy expenditure and low dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) receptor density, there is a paucity of research concerning the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) variants and percent body fat. We report here the potential association of DRD2 genotypes and the percent fat phenotype. In this study we genotyped 122 obese/overweight (O/OW) Caucasian subjects and 30 non-obese Caucasian controls, screened to exclude substance abuse. The subjects were assessed for weight, body mass index (BMI; kg m -2) and percent body fat using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The sample was separated into two independent groups; those with the Taq1 A1 allele (A1/A1 or A1/A2) and those without the A1 allele (A2/A2). The controls had a normal range of body fat (25-31% for females and 18-25% for males). The O/OW subjects had a percent body fat value of over 32% for females and over 25% for males. For the O/OW subjects, the mean BMI was 29.3 ± 6.25 kg m -2, mean body fat was 42.1 ± 7.5% and mean weight was 82.7 ± 21.7 kg. The DRD2 Taq1 A1 allele was present in 67% of the O/OW subjects compared to 3.3% of super controls (A group), 33.3% of screened (for drug abuse and obesity) controls (B group) and unscreened literature controls 29.4% (P ≤ 0.001). Comparing all cases with more than 34% body fat, utilizing logistic regression analysis, the DRD2 A1 allele accounts for 45.9% of the variance, which is statistically significant (χ 2 = 43.47, degrees of freedom (df) = 1, P < 0.0001). These results are consistent with a role for the DRD2 gene in obesity, as measured by percent body fat as well as by weight and BMI. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Miller M.,Aminostream | Miller M.,LifeGen Inc | Chen A.L.C.,Chang Jung Christian University | Stokes S.D.,Lee Clinic | And 30 more authors.
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs | Year: 2012

Substance use disorders (SUD) are inheritable and the culprit is hypodopaminergic function regulated by reward genes. We evaluated a natural dopaminergic agonist; KB220 intravenous (IV) and oral variants, to improve dopaminergic function in SUD. Our pilot experiment found a significant reduction of chronic symptoms, measured by the Chronic Abstinence Symptom Severity (CASS) Scale. The combined group (IV and oral) did significantly better than the oral-only group over the first week and 30-day follow-up period. Next, the combination was given to129 subjects and three factors; Emotion, Somatic, and Impaired Cognition, with eigenvalues greater than one were extracted for baseline CASS-Revised (CASS-R) variables. Paired sample t-tests for pre and post-treatment scales showed significant declines (p =.00001) from pre- to post-treatment: t = 19.1 for Emotion, t = 16.1 for Somatic, and t = 14.9 for Impaired Cognition. In a two-year follow-up of 23 subjects who underwent KB220IV therapy (at least five IV treatments over seven days) plus orals for 30+ days: 21 (91%) were sober at six months, 19 (82%) having no relapse; 19 (82%) were sober at one year, 18 (78%) having no relapse; and 21 (91%) were sober two-years post-treatment, 16 (70%) having no relapse. We await additional research and advise caution in interpreting these encouraging results. © 2012 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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