G and listic Addiction Treatment Center

North Miami Beach, FL, United States

G and listic Addiction Treatment Center

North Miami Beach, FL, United States
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Blum K.,Florida College | Blum K.,G and listic Addiction Treatment Center | Blum K.,LifeGen Inc | Blum K.,Path Foundation NY | And 20 more authors.
IIOAB Journal | Year: 2011

The total population of the United States at the turn of the 21 st century was 281,421,906. The total number of people above the age of 12 years old was estimated at 249 million. The National Institutes on Drug Abuse and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) have surveyed persons age 12 and older and found that in the year 2001, a total of 104 million people have used illegal drugs in their life (ever used), 32 million used a psychoactive drug in the past year (2000-2001) and 18 million used a psychoactive drug in the past 30 days. Interestingly this does not include Alcohol. We must ask then, who are the people that could just say NO? When almost half-of the US population have indulged in illegal drug practices, when our presidential candidates are forced to dodge the tricky question of their past history involving illegal drug use, and when almost every American has sloshed down a martini or two in their life time, there must be a reason, there must be a need, there must be a natural response for humans to imbibe at such high rates. There is even a more compelling question surrounding the millions who seek out high risk novelty. Why do millions have this innate drive in face of putting themselves in harms-way? Why are millions paying the price of their indiscretions in our jails, in hospitals, in wheel chairs and are lying dead in our cemeteries. What price must we pay for pleasure seeking or just plain getting "HIGH"? Maybe the answer lies within our brain. Maybe it is in our genome? Utilization of the candidate vs the common variant approach may be parsimonious as it relates to unraveling the addiction riddle. In this commentary we have discussed evidence, theories and conjecture about the "High Mind" and its relationship to evolutionary genetics and drug seeking behavior as impacted by genetic polymorphisms. We consider the meaning of recent findings in genetic research including an exploration of the candidate vs the common variant approach to addiction, epigenetics, genetic memory and the genotype-phenotype problem. We speculate about the neurological basis of pleasure seeking and addiction, the human condition and the scope of societal judgments that effect multitudes in a global atmosphere where people are seeking "pleasure states". ©IIOAB-India.

Blum K.,University of Florida | Blum K.,G and listic Addiction Treatment Center | Blum K.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Blum K.,Reward Deficiency Solutions LLC | And 16 more authors.
IIOAB Journal | Year: 2010

There is a need to classify patients at genetic risk for drug seeking behavior prior to or upon entry to residential and or non-residential chemical dependency programs. We have determined based on a literature review, that there are seven risk alleles associated with six candidate genes that were studied in this patient population of recovering poly-drug abusers. To determine risk severity of these 26 patients we calculated the percentage of prevalence of the risk alleles and provided a severity score based on percentage of these alleles. Subjects carry the following risk alleles: DRD2=A1; SLC6A3 (DAT) =10R; DRD4=3R or 7R; 5HTTlRP = L or LA; MAO= 3R; and COMT=G. As depicted in table 2 low severity (LS) = 1-36%; Moderate Severity =37-50%, and High severity = 51-100%. We studied two distinct ethnic populations group 1 consisted of 16 male Caucasian psycho stimulant addicts and group 2 consisted of 10 Chinese heroin addicted males. Based on this model the 16 subjects tested have at least one risk allele or 100%. Out of the 16 subjects we found 50% (8) HS; 31% (5) MS; and 19% LS (3 subjects). These scores are then converted to a fraction and then represented as a Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS) whereby we found the average GARS to be: 0.28 low severity, 0.44 moderate severity and 0.58 high severity respectively. Therefore, using this GARS we found that 81% of the patients were at moderate to high risk for addictive behavior. Of particular interest we found that 56% of the subjects carried the DRD2 A1 allele (9/16). Out of the 9 Chinese heroin addicts[one patient not genotyped] (group 2) we found 11% (1) HS; 56% (5) MS; and 33% LS (3 subjects). These scores are then converted to a fraction and then represented as GARS whereby we found the average GARS to be: 0.28 Low Severity; 0.43 moderate severity and 0.54 high severity respectively. Therefore, using GARS we found that 67% of the patients were at moderate to high risk for addictive behavior. Of particular interest we found that 56% of the subjects carried the DRD2 A1 allele (5/9) similar to group 1. Statistical analysis revealed that the groups did not differ interms of overall severity (67 vs. 81%) in these two distinct populations. Combining these two independent study populations reveal that subjects entering a residential treatment facility for poly-drug abuse carry at least one risk allele (100%). We found 74% of the combined 25 subjects (Caucasian and Chinese) had a moderate to high GARS. Confirmation of these exploratory results and development of mathematical predictive values of these risk alleles are necessary before any meaningful interpretation of these results are to be considered. ©IIOAB-India.

Bowirrat A.,Nazareth English Hospital EMME | Chen T.J.H.,Chang Jung Christian University | Oscar-Berman M.,Boston University | Madigan M.,Lifegen Inc. | And 15 more authors.
Molecular Neurobiology | Year: 2012

Executive functions are processes that act in harmony to control behaviors necessary for maintaining focus and achieving outcomes. Executive dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders is attributed to structural or functional pathology of brain networks involving prefrontal cortex (PFC) and its connections with other brain regions. The PFC receives innervations from different neurons associated with a number of neurotransmitters, especially dopamine (DA). Here we review findings on the contribution of PFC DA to higher-order cognitive and emotional behaviors. We suggest that examination of multifactorial interactions of an individual's genetic history, along with environmental risk factors, can assist in the characterization of executive functioning for that individual. Based upon the results of genetic studies, we also propose genetic mapping as a probable diagnostic tool serving as a therapeutic adjunct for augmenting executive functioning capabilities. We conclude that preservation of the neurological underpinnings of executive functions requires the integrity of complex neural systems including the influence of specific genes and associated polymorphisms to provide adequate neurotransmission. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.

Westcott W.L.,Quincy College | Chen T.,Chang Jung Christian University | Neric F.B.,National Strength and Conditioning Association | DiNubile N.,University of Pennsylvania | And 22 more authors.
Journal of Exercise Physiology Online | Year: 2011

To date, a product or routine that consistently relieves delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) caused by eccentric exercise has yet to be identified. Our latest research results indicate that a new device called Marc Pro™ (MPD) significantly improves muscle recovery and muscle endurance from combined concentric and eccentric exercise in healthy recreational exercisers. In the first study, 14 subjects (no prior soreness upon study entry) performed strength training activity (leg extension exercise with eccentric emphasis) to produce DOMS in the quadriceps muscles. All participants received one-hour of MPD stimulation on the right leg only following the exercise session whereby each participant served as their own control. One day later, assessment of muscle soreness revealed significantly less discomfort in the right leg (MPD) than in the left leg (no MPD) in all subjects and in responders, respectively (p < 0.008; p < 0.002). The number of repetitions completed with the right leg (MPD) was significantly greater than the number of repetitions completed with the left leg (no MPD) in all subjects and in responders, respectively (p < 0.03; p < 0.008). In the second experiment, 13 subjects (no prior soreness upon study entry) utilized a modestly challenging uphill/downhill hike to produce DOMS in the quadriceps muscles. Following the hike the subjects' right leg received MPD stimulation for 60 minutes, whereas the left leg received no MPD application. Reported soreness was significantly less in the right leg (MPD) than in the left leg (no MPD) in all participants and in responders, respectively (p < 0.0008; p < 0.0002). These results suggest that MPD stimulation results in a significant reduction in DOMS following strenuous unaccustomed eccentric exercise and significantly greater muscle endurance performance, as measured by leg extension repetitions. Investigation of Marc Pro™ in a larger population is underway and must await confirmation. © 1997-2011 American Society of Exercise Physiologists.

Westcott W.,Quincy College | Varghese J.,Quincy Medical Center | DiNubile N.,University of Pennsylvania | Moynihan N.,Quincy Medical Center | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Exercise Physiology Online | Year: 2011

This study examined the effects of exercise alone and exercise and nutritional supplementation on lumbar spine bone mineral density, lean weight, and resting blood pressure. The subjects (N = 52) were placed into a Control Group [no exercise or nutritional supplements], an Exercise Group [strength training and aerobic activity; no nutritional supplementation]; and an Exercise and Nutrition Group [strength training and aerobic activity; supplementary protein, calcium, and vitamin D]. Changes in lumbar spine bone mineral density did not attain significance. Lean weight increased significantly in the Exercise and Nutrition Group. Resting SBP and DBP decreased significantly in the Exercise and Nutrition Group. These findings indicate that strength training, aerobic exercise, and nutritional supplements may be more effective than just exercise for increasing lean weight and for reducing resting blood pressure.

Miller M.,Aminostream | Miller M.,LifeGen Inc. | Miller M.,PATH Foundation | Chen A.L.C.,Chang Jung Christian University | And 33 more authors.
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs | Year: 2012

Substance use disorders (SUD) are inheritable and the culprit is hypodopaminergic function regulated by reward genes. We evaluated a natural dopaminergic agonist; KB220 intravenous (IV) and oral variants, to improve dopaminergic function in SUD. Our pilot experiment found a significant reduction of chronic symptoms, measured by the Chronic Abstinence Symptom Severity (CASS) Scale. The combined group (IV and oral) did significantly better than the oral-only group over the first week and 30-day follow-up period. Next, the combination was given to129 subjects and three factors; Emotion, Somatic, and Impaired Cognition, with eigenvalues greater than one were extracted for baseline CASS-Revised (CASS-R) variables. Paired sample t-tests for pre and post-treatment scales showed significant declines (p =.00001) from pre- to post-treatment: t = 19.1 for Emotion, t = 16.1 for Somatic, and t = 14.9 for Impaired Cognition. In a two-year follow-up of 23 subjects who underwent KB220IV therapy (at least five IV treatments over seven days) plus orals for 30+ days: 21 (91%) were sober at six months, 19 (82%) having no relapse; 19 (82%) were sober at one year, 18 (78%) having no relapse; and 21 (91%) were sober two-years post-treatment, 16 (70%) having no relapse. We await additional research and advise caution in interpreting these encouraging results. © 2012 Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Blum K.,Florida College | Blum K.,National Institute of Holistic Studies | Blum K.,G and listic Addiction Treatment Center | Blum K.,LifeGen Inc | And 18 more authors.
Postgraduate Medicine | Year: 2010

Background: It is well established that in both food- and drug-addicted individuals there is  "dopamine resistance" associated with the DRD2 gene A1 allele. Based on earlier studies, evidence is emerging wherein the potential of utilizing a natural, nonaddicting, safe, putative D2 agonist may play a significant role in the recovery of individuals with reward deficiency syndrome, including those addicted to psychoactive chemicals. Findings: Positive outcomes demonstrated by quantitative electroencephalographic (qEEG) imaging in a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study involving oral Synaptose Complex KB220Z™ showed an increase of alpha waves and low beta wave activity in the parietal brain region. Using t statistics, significant differences observed between placebo and Synaptose Complex KB220Z™ consistently occurred in the frontal regions after week 1 and then again after week 2 of analyses (P = 0.03). This is the first report to demonstrate involvement of the prefrontal cortex in the qEEG response to a natural putative D2 agonist (Synaptose Complex KB220Z™), especially evident in dopamine D2 A1 allele subjects. Independently, we have further supported this finding with an additional study of 3 serious polydrug abusers undergoing protracted abstinence who carried the DRD2 A1 allele. Significant qEEG differences were found between those who received 1 dose of placebo compared with those who were administered Synaptose Complex KB220Z™. Synaptose Complex KB220Z™ induced positive regulation of the dysregulated electrical activity of the brain in these addicts. The results are indicative of a phase change from low amplitude or low power in the brain to a more regulated state by increasing an average of 6.169 mV2 across the prefrontal cortical region. In the first experiment we found that while 50% of the subjects carried the DRD2 A1 allele, 100% carried ≥ 1 risk allele. Specifically, based on the proposed addiction risk score for these 14 subjects, 72% had moderate-to-severe addiction risk. Similar findings were obtained by repeating the experiment in 3 additional currently abstinent polydrug abusers carrying the DRD2 A1 allele. Conclusion: This seminal work will provide important information that may ultimately lead to significant improvement in the recovery of individuals with psychostimulant and polydrug abuse problems, specifically those with genetically induced dopamine deficiency. Based on this small sample size, we are proposing that with necessary large populations supporting these initial results, and possibly even additional candidate genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms, we may eventually have the clinical ability to classify severity according to genotype and possession of risk alleles, along with offering a safe, nonaddicting, natural dopaminergic receptor agonist that potentially upregulates instead of downregulates dopaminergic receptors, preferably the D2 subtype. © Postgraduate Medicine.

Chen A.L.C.,Chang Jung Christian University | Blum K.,University of Florida | Blum K.,G and listic Addiction Treatment Center | Blum K.,LifeGen Inc. | And 10 more authors.
Food and Function | Year: 2012

While there is a considerable body of literature correlating the role of dopaminergic genes and obesity, body mass index, body type, overeating, carbohydrate binging, energy expenditure and low dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) receptor density, there is a paucity of research concerning the dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) variants and percent body fat. We report here the potential association of DRD2 genotypes and the percent fat phenotype. In this study we genotyped 122 obese/overweight (O/OW) Caucasian subjects and 30 non-obese Caucasian controls, screened to exclude substance abuse. The subjects were assessed for weight, body mass index (BMI; kg m -2) and percent body fat using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The sample was separated into two independent groups; those with the Taq1 A1 allele (A1/A1 or A1/A2) and those without the A1 allele (A2/A2). The controls had a normal range of body fat (25-31% for females and 18-25% for males). The O/OW subjects had a percent body fat value of over 32% for females and over 25% for males. For the O/OW subjects, the mean BMI was 29.3 ± 6.25 kg m -2, mean body fat was 42.1 ± 7.5% and mean weight was 82.7 ± 21.7 kg. The DRD2 Taq1 A1 allele was present in 67% of the O/OW subjects compared to 3.3% of super controls (A group), 33.3% of screened (for drug abuse and obesity) controls (B group) and unscreened literature controls 29.4% (P ≤ 0.001). Comparing all cases with more than 34% body fat, utilizing logistic regression analysis, the DRD2 A1 allele accounts for 45.9% of the variance, which is statistically significant (χ 2 = 43.47, degrees of freedom (df) = 1, P < 0.0001). These results are consistent with a role for the DRD2 gene in obesity, as measured by percent body fat as well as by weight and BMI. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Blum K.,Florida College | Blum K.,G and listic Addiction Treatment Center | Werner T.,University of Florida | Carnes S.,Pine Grove Behavioral Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs | Year: 2012

The nucleus accumbens, a site within the ventral striatum, plays a prominent role in mediating the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, food, sex, and other addictions. Indeed, it is generally believed that this structure mandates motivated behaviors such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity, which are elicited by natural rewards and other strong incentive stimuli. This article focuses on sex addiction, but we hypothesize that there is a common underlying mechanism of action for the powerful effects that all addictions have on human motivation. That is, biological drives may have common molecular genetic antecedents, which if impaired, lead to aberrant behaviors. Based on abundant scientific support, we further hypothesize that dopaminergic genes, and possibly other candidate neurotransmitter-related gene polymorphisms, affect both hedonic and anhedonic behavioral outcomes. Genotyping studies already have linked gene polymorphic associations with alcohol and drug addictions and obesity, and we anticipate that future genotyping studies of sex addicts will provide evidence for polymorphic associations with specific clustering of sexual typologies based on clinical instrument assessments. We recommend that scientists and clinicians embark on research coupling the use of neuroimaging tools with dopaminergic agonistic agents to target specific gene polymorphisms systematically for normalizing hyper- or hypo-sexual behaviors. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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