Stellenbosch, South Africa
Stellenbosch, South Africa

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Domingues A.,Associacao de Produtores de Frutas | Ormonde C.,Flor e Azoris Sociedade Unipessoal Lda. | Malan D.G.,Fynflor | Ornelas L.,ServiCos de Desenvolvimento Agrario da Ilha Terceira | Monjardino P.,University of The Azores
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Protea cultivars 'Susara' and 'Pink Ice' have been cultivated in Azores for approximately a decade, but no studies have been conducted to assess their growth and developmental patterns in various pruning times. From 2006 through 2008, in a cooperative effort between Fruter, Serviços de Desenvolvimento Agrário da Terceira, and Universidade dos Açores, stem measurements and developmental stages were recorded every two weeks on farms located on most of Terceira Island production regions. In this presentation we report the growth and developmental patterns of 'Susara' under two biennial pruning times and 'Pink Ice' under one annual and two biennial pruning times. Results indicate that late spring is the best pruning time for Protea 'Susara', and biennial mid-summer pruning is the best system for Protea 'Pink Ice' in Azores.


Domingues A.,Acao de Produtores de Frutas | Ormonde C.,Flor e Azoris Sociedade Unipessoal Lda. | Malan D.G.,Fynflor | Ornelas L.,Servico de Desenvolvimento Agrario da Ilha Terceira | Monjardino P.,University of The Azores
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

Although Leucospermum cultivars 'Tango', 'Succession I', 'Scarlet Ribbon', and 'High Gold' have been cultivated in Azores for approximately a decade, n studies have been conducted to assess their growth and developmental patterns. During the 2006-2007 growing season, fortnightly stem length measurements and developmental stages were recorded in farms located on most of Terceira Island's production regions. In this presentation we report the growth and developmental patterns of these four cultivars. We relate these data with environmental conditions and assess the feasibility of thermal and photo-thermal models to predict the average harvest date of these genotypes. We conclude that Leucospermum average harvest date can be predicted with thermal and photo-thermal models, although predictability varies among the cultivars tested in this study.


Blomerus L.M.,Agricultural Research Council ARC | Malan D.G.,Fynflor
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Successful clonal propagation is essential for commercial production of Proteaceae. The standard protocol developed for rooting Proteaceae cuttings has not been successful with all protea cultivars. The purpose of this study was to evaluate delayed application of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) to improve the propagation of protea cultivars known to have low rooting success. Cuttings were either stored in the dark for 0 to 10 days before treating with IBA or incubated in a rooting environment under natural light without IBA for conditioning periods of 0 to 28 days before application of IBA. Cultivars Protea F2 hybrid 'Niobe', P. magnifica × P. compacta 'Lady Di', P. magnifica × P. longifolia 'Pinita', P. magnifica × P. susannae 'Susara' and P. compacta × P. susannae 'Pink Ice' were used. More than 80% rooting was achieved with 'Pink Ice' and 'Susara' and these may be described as "easy-to-root". The first approach did not increase rooting percentage of the more "difficult-to-root" cultivars, 'Lady Di', 'Niobe' and 'Pinita'. 'Niobe' cuttings rooted significantly better with no cold storage period. Although some trends were detected that indicated improved rooting success with delayed IBA treatment after incubation in the rooting house, there was no significant improvement in the number of transplantable cuttings. In both approaches, 'Pinita' had a high percentage of cuttings with no root formation, but without decay or leaf drop.


Monjardino P.,University of The Azores | Bairos E.,University of The Azores | Melo A.,University of The Azores | Ornelas L.,Servico de Desenvolvimento Agrario da Ilha Terceira | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Leucospermum cultivars 'Tango' and 'Succession II' are only occasionally fertilized in the Azores. This is mainly because the local volcanic soils where these crops are cultivated often contain high levels of most nutrients and with limited irrigation practices it is not clear what will be the cost/benefit of foliar fertilization or fertigation. During the 2009-2010 growing season, four foliar fertilization regimes were tested, which were: Ca+Mg+micronutrients, K+Ca+Mg+micronutrients, N+Ca+Mg+micronutrients, and N+P+K+Mg+micronutrients. In this presentation we report yield measurements, stem lengths, the harvest season, and stem and foliar defects of these two cultivars. In cases where pruning of the tip of the stem was required, we relate it with the harvest season. We concluded that the K+Ca+Mg+ micronutrients fertilization regime gave the best results in 'Tango', whereas in 'Succession II' there was no fertilization regime that improved any of the parameters.


Ornelas L.,Servico de Desenvolvimento Agrario da Ilha Terceira | Domingues A.,Associacao de Produtores de Frutas | Pinheiro J.A.,University of The Azores | Malan D.G.,Fynflor | Monjardino P.,University of The Azores
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Fertilization of Protea and Leucospermum cultivars in Azorean volcanic soils with high organic matter is often neglected due to naturally high nutrient levels and frequent poor response to fertilization practices. During the growing season of 2008- 2009, foliar and soil samples were collected at mid-vegetative, early flowering and mid-flowering developmental stages of four Protea and three Leucospermum cultivars. The soil fertility analysis showed that these plants are mostly grown in stable pH and organic matter (OM) conditions, but at variable phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels. In the case of P, the upper levels in Azorean volcanic soils are very high, but plants are still commercially grown in such conditions. The foliar analysis showed that Protea cultivars had the tendency to have low levels of K, Mg and zinc (Zn), whereas Leucospermum cultivars frequently had low levels of P, Ca, Mg and Zn. A critical analysis of the data is presented in this study.


Malan D.G.,Fynflor
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2015

The wider world of Protea cultivation is consistently expanding in terms of the countries where Protea is being produced, as evidenced by a steady increase in participating countries at conferences. Reports from traditional cultivation areas other than South Africa mainly indicate stagnation or a decrease in production, or failure of seemingly initially very successful projects. South Africa however is currently going through its third wave of increased production, from 400 ha by the late 1990s, to 800 ha by 2008, and now 1, 200 ha of intensively cultivated Protea. This talk highlights probable reasons for the lack of growth elsewhere, and investigates likely reasons and possible routes for the continued expansion of South African Protea cultivation.

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