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Kratz S.,FX Palo Alto Laboratory | Dunnigan T.,FX Palo Alto Laboratory
Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings | Year: 2016

We describe a novel thermal haptic output device, ThermoTouch, that provides a grid of thermal pixels. Unlike previous devices which mainly use Peltier elements for thermal output, ThermoTouch uses liquid cooling and electro-resistive heating to output thermal feedback at arbitrary grid locations. We describe the design of the prototype, highlight advantages and disadvantages of the technique and briefly discuss future improvements and research applications. © 2016 Authors.

Kumar J.,University of Maryland University College | Chen F.,FX Palo Alto Laboratory | Doermann D.,University of Maryland University College
Proceedings - International Conference on Pattern Recognition | Year: 2012

Images of document pages have different characteristics than images of natural scenes, and so the sharpness measures developed for natural scene images do not necessarily extend to document images primarily composed of text. We present an efficient and simple method for effectively estimating the sharp-ness/blurriness of document images that also performs well on natural scenes. Our method can be used to predict the sharpness in scenarios where images are blurred due to camera-motion (or hand-shake), defocus, or inherent properties of the imaging system. The proposed method outperforms the perceptually-based, no-reference sharpness work of [1] and [4], which was shown to perform better than 14 other no-reference sharpness measures on the LIVE dataset. © 2012 ICPR Org Committee.

Chandra S.,FX Palo Alto Laboratory
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies | Year: 2011

The ability of lecture videos to capture the different modalities of a class interaction make them a good review tool. Multimedia capable devices are ubiquitous among contemporary students. Many lecturers are leveraging this popularity by distributing videos of lectures. They depend on the university to provide the video capture infrastructure. Some universities use trained videographers. Though they produce excellent videos, these efforts are expensive. Several research projects automate the video capture. However, these research prototypes are not readily deployable because of organizational constraints. Rather than waiting for the university to provide the necessary infrastructure, we show that instructors can personally capture the lecture videos using off-the-shelf components. Consumer grade high definition cameras and powerful personal computers allow instructor captured lecture videos to be as effective as the ones captured by the university. However, instructors will need to spend their own time on the various steps of the video capture workflow. They are also untrained in media capture; the capture mechanisms must be simple. Based on our experience in capturing lecture videos over three and a half years, we describe the technical challenges encountered in this endeavor. For instructors who accept the educational value of distributing lecture videos, we show that the effort required to capture and process the videos was modest. However, most existing campus storage and distribution options are unsuitable for the resource demands imposed by video distribution. We describe the strengths of several viable distribution alternatives. The instructors should work with the campus information technology personnel and design a distribution mechanism that considers the network location of the students. © 2011 IEEE.

Cooper M.,FX Palo Alto Laboratory
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

Video is becoming a prevalent medium for e-learning. Lecture videos contain text information in both the presentation slides and lecturer's speech. This paper examines the relative utility of automatically recovered text from these sources for lecture video retrieval. To extract the visual information, we automatically detect slides within the videos and apply optical character recognition to obtain their text. Automatic speech recognition is used similarly to extract spoken text from the recorded audio. We perform controlled experiments with manually created ground truth for both the slide and spoken text from more than 60 hours of lecture video. We compare the automatically extracted slide and spoken text in terms of accuracy relative to ground truth, overlap with one another, and utility for video retrieval. Results reveal that automatically recovered slide text and spoken text contain different content with varying error profiles. Experiments demonstrate that automatically extracted slide text enables higher precision video retrieval than automatically recovered spoken text. © 2013 SPIE and IS&T.

Cooper M.,FX Palo Alto Laboratory
MM'11 - Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Multimedia Conference and Co-Located Workshops | Year: 2011

This paper describes methods for clustering photos that possess both time stamps and geographical coordinates as metadata. We present a two part method that first analyzes photos'time and location information to independently partition the photos into multiple clusterings. A subset of the detected clusters is then selected for the final photo clustering using an efficient dynamic programming procedure that optimizes a clustering fitness score. We propose fitness measures to produce clusterings that are coherent in space, time, or both. One group of scores directly measures within-cluster inter-photo distances. A second set of scores measures clusters'consistency with the reference clusterings. We present experiments that validate our method using multiple data sets. Copyright 2011 ACM.

Liu Q.,FX Palo Alto Laboratory
IEEE Multimedia | Year: 2016

Learn how the Bay Area Multimedia Forum Series (BAMMF) got started, how it has grown since its first event back in November 2013, and how it is helping Silicon Valley researchers in both industry and academia share and collaborate to address challenges and guide future research. © 1994-2012 IEEE.

Chandra S.,FX Palo Alto Laboratory
IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing | Year: 2012

This paper describes the design and implementation of a file system-based distributed authoring system for campus-wide workgroups. We focus on documents for which changes by different group members are harder to automatically reconcile into a single version. Prior approaches relied on using group-aware editors. Others built collaborative middleware that allowed the group members to use traditional authoring tools. These approaches relied on an ability to automatically detect conflicting updates. They also operated on specific document types. Instead, our system relies on users to moderate and reconcile updates by other group members. Our file system-based approach also allows group members to modify any document type. We maintain one updateable copy of the shared content on each group member's node. We also hoard read-only copies of each of these updateable copies in any interested group member's node. All these copies are propagated to other group members at a rate that is solely dictated by the wireless user availability. The various copies are reconciled using the moderation operation; each group member manually incorporates updates from all the other group members into their own copy. The various document versions eventually converge into a single version through successive moderation operations. The system assists with this convergence process by using the made-with knowledge of all causal file system reads of contents from other replicas. An analysis using a long-term wireless user availability traces from a university shows the strength of our asynchronous and distributed update propagation mechanism. Our user space file system prototype exhibits acceptable file system performance. A subjective evaluation showed that the moderation operation was intuitive for students. © 2012 IEEE.

Kratz S.,FX Palo Alto Laboratory | Rohs M.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Essl G.,University of Michigan
International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, Proceedings IUI | Year: 2013

Motivated by the addition of gyroscopes to a large number of new smart phones, we study the effects of combining ac-celerometer and gyroscope data on the recognition rate of motion gesture recognizers with dimensionality constraints. Using a large data set of motion gestures we analyze results for the following algorithms: Protractor3D, Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) and Regularized Logistic Regression (LR). We chose to study these algorithms because they are relatively easy to implement, thus well suited for rapid prototyping or early deployment during prototyping stages. For use in our analysis, we contribute a method to extend Protractor3D to work with the 6D data obtained by combining accelerometer and gyroscope data. Our results show that combining accelerometer and gyroscope data is beneficial also for algorithms with dimensionality constraints and improves the gesture recognition rate on our data set by up to 4%. Copyright © 2013 ACM.

Rowe L.A.,FX Palo Alto Laboratory
ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications and Applications | Year: 2013

A panel at ACM Multimedia 2012 addressed research successes in the past 20 years. While the panel focused on the past, this article discusses successes since the ACM SIGMM 2003 Retreat and suggests research directions in the next ten years. While significant progress has been made, more research is required to allow multimedia to impact our everyday computing environment. The importance of hardware changes on future research directions is discussed. We believe ubiquitous computing- meaning abundant computation and network bandwidth-should be applied in novel ways to solve multimedia grand challenges and continue the IT revolution of the past century.

Liu Q.,FX Palo Alto Laboratory | Liao C.,FX Palo Alto Laboratory
Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) | Year: 2012

PaperUI is a human-information interface concept that advocates using paper as displays and using mobile devices, such as camera phones or camera pens, as traditional computer-mice. When emphasizing technical efforts, some researchers like to refer the PaperUI related underlying work as interactive paper system. We prefer the term PaperUI for emphasizing the final goal, narrowing the discussion focus, and avoiding terminology confusion between interactive paper system and interactive paper computer [40]. PaperUI combines the merits of paper and the mobile devices, in that users can comfortably read and flexibly arrange document content on paper, and access digital functions related to the document via the mobile computing devices. This concept aims at novel interface technology to seamlessly bridge the gap between paper and computers for better user experience in handling documents. Compared with traditional laptops and tablet PCs, devices involved in the PaperUI concept are more light-weight, compact, energy efficient, and widely adopted. Therefore, we believe this interface vision can make computation more convenient to access for general public. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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