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Yu Z.,Hohai University | Yu Z.,University of Nevada, Las Vegas | Cai H.,Hohai University | Cai H.,Fuzhou Planning Design Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Hydrologic Engineering | Year: 2014

This study evaluates the performance of three Budyko-type equations (Fu's equation, Turc-Pike's equation, and Milly's equation) in modeling annual evapotranspiration in 32 watersheds covering both humid and arid regions in Northern China. Daily meteorological data and monthly runoffdata are used to calculate potential and actual evapotranspirations in the 32 watersheds. The results show that the Budykotype equations are adaptive in predicting annual evapotranspiration over most of the watersheds, and Fu's and Turc-Pike's equations perform better than Milly's. In addition, the validity of the framework by Koster and Suarez in predicting the evapotranspiration deviation ratio (EDR) (i.e., the ratioof the standard deviation of evapotranspiration to the standard deviation of rainfall) based on Fu's and Ture-Pike's equations is also examined. Given the unexpected Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values (-0.915 and -1.026 in Fu's and Ture-Pike's, respectively), a linear one-variable model is employed to improve the accuracy of the EDR estimation. Two revised EDR estimation equations are developed in two cases: one includes and the other excludes the three humid watersheds on the basis of the original framework. The results show that the first revised equation may be applied to both humid and arid watersheds, whereas the second revised equation is more appropriate in calculating the EDR for arid watersheds. © 2014 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Guan Z.-C.,Fuzhou University | Gong Z.-F.,Fuzhou University | Luo Z.-B.,Fuzhou University | Chen R.-C.,Fuzhou Planning Design & Research Institute | He C.,Southwest Jiaotong University
Yantu Lixue/Rock and Soil Mechanics | Year: 2016

In this study, a 1/30 model for a large section tunnel is firstly designed based on the extension project of Jinjishan Tunnel along Fuzhou 2nd ring road. Then the earthquake-simulating tests are conducted under 21 different loading conditions using a bidirectional earthquake shaking table apparatus at Fuzhou University. Through Fourier analysis of testing results, it indicates that the existence of the large section tunnel changes the seismic property of original ground significantly. It is also found that the 1st predominant frequency reflects the seismic properties of original ground, while the 2nd predominant frequency demonstrates seismic properties of the lining structure. The frequency-response analysis of testing results shows that the components augment significantly around the 2nd predominant frequency, when the seismic wave propagates from the bottom to top until the lining structure. The most-augmented frequency almost equals to the 2nd predominant frequency. The relationship between the seismic property of the large section tunnel and the amplitude of input ground motion is studied in detail. The apparent cracks emerge on the lining structure after the excitation by the large ground motion, which significantly reduces the overall stiffness of the large section tunnel. Moreover, both the 2nd predominant frequency and the most-augmented frequency show remarkable reductions. In conclusion, this study provides some useful suggestions for the earthquake fortification of the large section tunnel. © 2016, Science Press. All right reserved.

Han J.-C.,Fudan University | Gao X.-L.,Fuzhou Planning Design Research Institute | Cai X.,Fudan University | Wang H.-W.,Tongji University | And 3 more authors.
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2016

In recent years, the pollution of surface runoff has raised increasing concern. However, its contribution to the contamination of wet weather flows (WWF) in storm sewers is little evaluated. A simplified mathematical method named Contribution Partition Mathematical Method for Storm Sewers was proposed, which would help small-scale residential communities to learn the contribution of different surface runoff (including roof, internal road, lawn, external road runoff and so on), mistakenly discharged wastewater (MDW) and sewer deposit erosion (SDE) to WWF pollution load in storm sewers. In a case study, internal road was found to be the greatest contributor of WWF pollution, while provided about 50% of organic compounds and total phosphorus (TP), 40% of suspended solids (SS), volatile suspended solids (VSS) and heavy metals. Meanwhile, MDW and SDE also supplied sufficient pollutants to WWF, including about 30% of TP, SS and VSS. Some suggestions were thereby proposed to better assist the local communities on their runoff pollution control. © 2016 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

Han J.-C.,Fudan University | Gao X.-L.,Fuzhou Planning Design Research Institute | Liu Y.,Fudan University | Wang H.-W.,Tongji University | Chen Y.,Fuzhou Planning Design Research Institute
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2014

In recent years, the pollution of receiving water induced by urban stormwater runoff has gained considerable attention. Meanwhile, rainwater is also a potential and valuable water resource, which may effectively mitigate the increasing water shortage. In the present study, the distributions and transport of nutrients and heavy metals in different stormwater runoff of two residential communities (site A and B) under the effect of drainage systems were discussed in detail. Site A with combined drainage system was located in old district featured with a lot of big manufacturing and chemical factories in suburb. Differently, site B with separate system was situated in new district occupied by small shops and residential quarters. The results indicated that air quality was a significant influence factor and reference index in the decision-making of rainwater harvesting and reuse. For nutrients, the anthropic activities contributed adequately ammonia nitrogen and total phosphorus to the road runoff(RD) and sewer overflows, especially in site A with combined drainage system. However, the roof runoff (RF) presented the highest event mean concentrations (EMC) of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen, probably due to the high runoff coefficient of roof and low interference from human activities on dry deposition. Zn(II), Cu(II), and Pb(II) concentrations showed a similar variation pattern, although there were some small differences owing to the erosion of metal materials from rooftops and street lamps. Compared with the "Standards for Drinking Water Quality" in China, the direct rainfall and RF in site B could be harvested and utilized for potential drinking water supply from the perspective of the studied parameters. For site A, at least 33.8% of and 50.8% of in RF must be removed before reuse. The results obtained in this research would provide an important assistance and support in urban rainwater reuse as well as runoff pollution control. © 2013 © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

Peng H.,Tongji University | Liu Y.,Fudan University | Wang H.,Tongji University | Gao X.,Fuzhou Planning Design Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2016

Drainage systems in China are currently being transformed from combined sewer systems into separate sewer systems; newly built areas generally use the latter for sewage and stormwater treatment. Polluted stormwater runoff is discharged directly into rivers through pipelines, thereby deteriorating the water quality of rivers. In this work, an urban stormwater system model was built with Infoworks Integrated Catchment Modeling and validated by measured data. The loads at the pipe outlets during rainstorms were analyzed as well. Stormwater system was transformed by using mathematical models under the conditions of meeting river water quality standards and preventing damage to water environmental capacity. The relative errors of volume and peak runoff of model calibration were from −2.33 to +12.06 % and −13.43 to +8.7 %, respectively. The study indicates that the stormwater system model can be used in scenario analysis, and the stormwater system can accommodate floods over a recurring interval of 10 years. Moreover, stormwater can be directly discharged into water bodies without exceeding the carrying capacity of the water environment with the transformation of the stormwater system. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

PubMed | Fudan University, Tongji University and Fuzhou Planning Design Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2016

This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of the event mean concentration (EMC) and first flush effect (FFE) during typical rainfall events in outfalls from different drainage systems and functional areas. Stormwater outfall quality data were collected from five outfalls throughout Fuzhou City (China) during 2011-2012. Samples were analyzed for water quality parameters, such as COD, NH3-N, TP, and SS. Analysis of values indicated that the order of the event mean concentrations (EMCs) in outfalls was intercepting combined system > direct emission combined system > separated system. Most of the rainfall events showed the FFE in all outfalls. The order of strength of the FFE was residential area of direct emission combined system > commercial area of separated system > residential area of intercepting combined system > office area of separated system > residential area of separated system. Results will serve as guide in managing water quality to reduce pollution from drainage systems.

Fuzhou Planning Design & Research Institute | Date: 2011-06-30

A magnetically levitated antiseismic structure comprises a main structure and one or more substructures. A first electromagnet is arranged at a base of the substructure and a corresponding second electromagnet is arranged on the substrate beneath the first electromagnet, both of the first and second electromagnets having the same electromagnetic polarity when they are electrically connected to a power source. The first and second electromagnets are electrically connected to an electromagnetic control device, and the electromagnet control device including an earthquake signal receiver. The present invention can effectively free people from damages and injuries from the earthquake.

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