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Li G.-H.,Fuzhou Dongfang Hospital | Niu L.-N.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | Zhang W.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Olsen M.,North Shore Endodontics | And 5 more authors.
Acta Biomaterialia | Year: 2014

New obturation biomaterials have been introduced over the past decade to improve the seal of the root canal system. However, it is not clear whether they have really produced a three-dimensional impervious seal that is important for reducing diseases associated with root canal treatment. A review of the literature was performed to identify models that have been employed for evaluating the seal of the root canal system. In vitro and in vivo models are not totally adept at quantifying the seal of root canals obturated with classic materials. Thus, one has to resort to clinical outcomes to examine whether there are real benefits associated with the use of recently introduced materials for obturating root canals. However, there is no simple answer because endodontic treatment outcomes are influenced by a host of other predictors that are more likely to take precedence over the influence of obturation materials. From the perspective of clinical performance, classic root filling materials have stood the test of time. Because many of the recently introduced materials are so new, there is not enough evidence yet to support their ability to improve clinical performance. This emphasizes the need to translate anecdotal information into clinically relevant research data on new biomaterials. © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Zhu Q.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | Zhang M.,Fuzhou Dongfang Hospital | Shi M.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | Liu Y.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | And 15 more authors.
Immunobiology | Year: 2016

The paradigm that B cells are nonphagocytic was taken for granted for a long time until phagocytic B cells were found in early vertebrate animals. Thereafter, limited evidence has shown that human B cells may also internalize bacteria. However, whether human B cells can actively phagocytose bacteria has been less extensively investigated; in particular, the mechanisms and significance of the phagocytosis require clarification. Here, we show that the human Raji B cell line can phagocytose both live and dead Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and the phagocytosed Mtb in turn affects the immune functions of the B cells. After incubation of Raji cells with Mtb, our confocal microscopy, electron microscopy and flow cytometry data showed that Raji cells effectively engulfed Mtb as well as latex beads. The phagocytic rate was proportional to the incubation time and the amount of Mtb or beads added. Additionally, we found that normal human serum could enhance the ability of Raji cells to phagocytose Mtb, while heat-inactivated serum reversed this promoting effect. The phagocytic process of B cells could partially be inhibited by cytochalasin B, an actin inhibitor. Importantly, the phagocytosed Mtb could regulate B cell immune functions, such as stimulating IgM production and upregulating the expression of the antigen-presenting costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86. Therefore, our results provide the first evidence that human B cells can phagocytose Mtb in an active manner that is independent of bacterial viability, and phagocytosed Mtb can in turn regulate the immune activation of B cells. © 2015 Elsevier GmbH.

Eid A.A.,Nagasaki University | Hussein K.A.,Georgia Regents University | Hussein K.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | Niu L.-N.,PLA Fourth Military Medical University | And 5 more authors.
Acta Biomaterialia | Year: 2014

Tricalcium silicate cements have been successfully employed in the biomedical field as bioactive bone and dentin substitutes, with widely acclaimed osteoactive properties. This research analyzed the effects of different tricalcium silicate cement formulations on the temporal osteoactivity profile of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMW-MSCs). These cells were exposed to four commercially available tricalcium silicate cement formulations in osteogenic differentiation medium. After 1, 3, 7 and 10 days, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were performed to detect expression of the target osteogenic markers ALP, RUNX2, OSX, OPN, MSX2 and OCN. After 3, 7, 14 and 21 days, alkaline phosphatase assay was performed to detect changes in intracellular enzyme level. An Alizarin Red S assay was performed after 28 days to detect extracellular matrix mineralization. In the presence of tricalcium silicate cements, target osteogenic markers were downregulated at the mRNA and protein levels at all time points. Intracellular alkaline phosphatase enzyme levels and extracellular mineralization of the experimental groups were not significantly different from the untreated control. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed increases in downregulation of RUNX2, OSX, MSX2 and OCN with increasing time of exposure to the tricalcium silicate cements, while ALP showed peak downregulation at day 7. For Western blotting, OSX, OPN, MSX2 and OCN showed increased downregulation with increased exposure time to the tested cements. Alkaline phosphatase enzyme levels generally declined after day 7. Based on these results, it is concluded that tricalcium silicate cements do not induce osteogenic differentiation of hBM-MSCs in vitro. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc.

Yu Z.H.,Fuzhou Dongfang Hospital | Yu Z.H.,Fujian Medical University | Yu Z.H.,Xiamen University | Wang D.J.,Fuzhou Dongfang Hospital | And 3 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2012

Since the identification of the NPHS1 gene, which encodes nephrin, various investigators have demonstrated that the NPHS1 mutation is a frequent cause of congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS); it is found in 98% of Finnish children with this syndrome and in 39-80% of non-Finnish cases. In China, compound heterozygous mutations in the NPHS1 gene have been identified in two Chinese families with CNS. To our knowledge, however, whether or not NPHS1 is the causative gene in sporadic Chinese CNS cases has not been established. We identified a homozygous mutation of NPHS1, 3250insG (V1084fsX1095), in a Chinese child with sporadic CNS. This finding leads us to suggest that NPHS1 mutations are also present in sporadic Chinese CNS cases. This gives additional support for the necessity for genetic examination of mutations in the NPHS1 gene in Chinese children with sporadic CNS. © FUNPEC-RP.

Yang Y.H.,Fuzhou Dongfang Hospital | Zhao F.,Fuzhou Dongfang Hospital | Feng D.N.,Fuzhou Dongfang Hospital | Wang J.J.,Fuzhou Dongfang Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Genetics and Molecular Research | Year: 2013

Mutations in the Wilms' tumor suppressor gene (WT1) can lead to syndromic forms of steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) such as Denys-Drash or Frasier syndrome and can cause isolated SRNS. A mutation within WT1 is a frequent cause of sporadic isolated SRNS in girls. In a worldwide cohort of girls, the rate of occurrence was 10.8%. Previous reports have indicated that in Chinese girls, the detection rate of WT1 mutations is 16.7% for early onset isolated nephrotic syndrome. The detection rate of WT1 mutations in Chinese girls with sporadic isolated SRNS is unknown. We examined WT1 mutations in 14 Chinese girls with sporadic isolated SRNS using polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing and studied a control group of 38 boys with sporadic isolated SRNS. We identified a WT1 mutation in 1 of 14 (7.1% detection rate) Chinese girls with sporadic isolated SRNS. No mutations occurred in WT1 in the remaining 13 girls or the control group. Our investigation supports the necessity of genetic examination for mutations in WT1 in girls with sporadic isolated SRNS. © FUNPEC-RP.

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