FutureChemistry Holding BV 6525 EC Nijmegen Netherlands

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FutureChemistry Holding BV 6525 EC Nijmegen Netherlands

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Cavina L.,Radboud University Nijmegen | van der Born D.,FutureChemistry Holding BV 6525 EC Nijmegen Netherlands | Klaren P.H.M.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Feiters M.C.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Organic Chemistry | Year: 2017

Radioiodinated pharmaceuticals are convenient tracers for clinical and research investigations because of the relatively long half-lives of radioactive iodine isotopes (i.e., 123I, 124I, and 131I) and the ease of their chemical insertion. Their application in radionuclide imaging and therapy may, however, be hampered by poor in vivo stability of the C-I bond. After an overview of the use of iodine in biology and nuclear medicine, we present here a survey of the catabolic pathways for iodinated xenobiotics, including their biodistribution, accumulation, and biostability. We summarize successful rational improvements in the biostability and conclude with general guidelines for the design of stable radioiodinated pharmaceuticals. It appears to be necessary to consider the whole molecule, rather than the radioiodinated fragment alone. Iodine radionuclides are generally retained in vivo on sp2 carbon atoms in iodoarenes and iodovinyl moieties, but not in iodinated heterocycles or on sp3 carbon atoms. Iodoarene substituents also have an influence, with increased in vivo deiodination in the cases of iodophenols and iodoanilines, whereas methoxylation and difluorination improve biostability. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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