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Mullen W.,University of Glasgow | Nemzer B.,FutureCeuticals Inc. | Ou B.,Brunswick Laboratories Inc. | Stalmach A.,University of Glasgow | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Commercial whole coffee fruit extracts and powder samples were analyzed for chlorogenic acids (CGA), caffeine and antioxidant activities. CGA and caffeine were characterized by LC-MSn and HPLC accordingly, and quantified by UV absorbance. ORAC, HORAC, NORAC, SORAC and SOAC (antioxidant capacities) were assessed. Three caffeoylquinic acids, three feruloylquinic acids, three dicaffeoylquinic acids, one p-coumaroylquinic acid, two caffeoylferuloylquinic acids and three putative chlorogenic lactones were quantified, along with a methyl ester of 5-caffeoylquinic acid (detected in one sample, the first such report in any coffee material). Multistep whole coffee fruit extracts displayed higher CGA content than single-step extracts, freeze-dried, or air-dried whole raw fruits. Caffeine in multistep extracts was lower than in the single-step extracts and powders. Antioxidant activity in whole coffee fruit extracts was up to 25-fold higher than in powders dependent upon the radical. Total antioxidant activity of samples displayed strong correlation to CGA content. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


Nemzer B.V.,FutureCeuticals Inc. | Rodriguez L.C.,NutraClinical Inc. | Hammond L.,NutraClinical Inc. | Disilvestro R.,Ohio State University | And 2 more authors.
Nutrition Journal | Year: 2011

Background: Measuring the effects of the acute intake of natural products on human biomarker concentrations, such as those related to oxidation and inflammation, can be an advantageous strategy for early clinical research on an ingredient or product. Methods. 31 total healthy subjects were randomized in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, acute pilot study with post-hoc subgroup analysis on 20 of the subjects. The study examined the effects of a single dose of a polyphenol-rich beverage (PRB), commercially marketed as "SoZo ", on serum anti-inflammatory and antioxidant markers. In addition, phytochemical analyses of PRB, and in vitro antioxidant capacity were also performed. Results: At 1 hour post-intake, serum values for 8-iso-PGF2-alpha and advanced oxidation protein products decreased significantly by 40% and 39%, respectively. Additionally, there was a trend toward decreased C-reactive protein, and increased nitric oxide levels. Both placebo and PRB treatment resulted in statistically significant increases in hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity (HORAC) compared to baseline; PRB showed a higher percent change (55-75% versus 23-74% in placebo group), but the two groups did not differ significantly from each other. Conclusions: PRB produced statistically significant changes in several blood biomarkers related to antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effects. Future studies are justified to verify results and test for cumulative effects of repeated intakes of PRB. The study demonstrates the potential utility of acute biomarker measurements for evaluating antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effects of natural products. © 2011 Nemzer et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Reyes-Izquierdo T.,Applied BioClinical Inc. | Nemzer B.,FutureCeuticals Inc. | Shu C.,Applied BioClinical Inc. | Huynh L.,Applied BioClinical Inc. | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

The present single-dose study was performed to assess the effect of whole coffee fruit concentrate powder (WCFC), green coffee caffeine powder (N677), grape seed extract powder (N31) and green coffee bean extract powder (N625) on blood levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Randomly assorted groups of fasted subjects consumed a single, 100 mg dose of each material. Plasma samples were collected at time zero (T 0) and at 30 min intervals afterwards, up to 120 min. A total of two control groups were included: subjects treated with silica dioxide (as placebo) or with no treatment. The collected data revealed that treatments with N31 and N677 increased levels of plasma BDNF by about 31 % under these experimental conditions, whereas treatment with WCFC increased it by 143 % (n 10), compared with baseline. These results indicate that WCFC could be used for modulation of BDNF-dependent health conditions. However, larger clinical studies are needed to support this possibility. © 2013 The Authors.


Nemzer B.,FutureCeuticals Inc. | Pietrzkowski Z.,FutureCeuticals Inc. | Sporna A.,Cracow University of Technology | Stalica P.,Cracow University of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

Red beet root (Beta vulgaris L.) colourants (betalains) are available either as concentrates produced by evaporating beet juice under vacuum, or as powders made by spray-drying a concentrate. The degradation of the pigments is dependent upon temperature, duration of heat treatment, pH and water activity of a product. Recently, a new proprietary method of large-scale chromatographic purification of red beet root extract has been discovered and developed that allows the production of more concentrated betalain formulations. In order to trace the betalainic compositions of the new products in comparison to the currently in-use spray-, air- and freeze-dried concentrates, a chromatographic study on betalains and their degradation derivatives analysed by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS was performed. Additionally, nutritional characterisation of the extracts was accomplished. Besides the most prominent betanin/isobetanin, elevated levels of neobetanin, which previously had been frequently detected in red beet roots, were also observed in the product prepared by the new method. The principal betanin/isobetanin pigments measured spectrophotometrically, comprised a major portion of the total betalain content (41%), the highest concentration of betalains reported in industrial products to date. The presence of other decarboxylated and dehydrogenated betanin derivatives in the new products is also discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wybraniec S.,Cracow University of Technology | Starzak K.,Cracow University of Technology | Skopinska A.,Cracow University of Technology | Nemzer B.,FutureCeuticals Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

A comprehensive nonenzymatic oxidation mechanism in betanin plant pigment as well as its derivatives, 2-decarboxybetanin, 17-decarboxybetanin, 2,17-bidecarboxybetanin, and neobetanin, in the presence of ABTS cation radicals was investigated by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The main compounds formed during the first step of betanin and 2-decarboxybetanin oxidation are 2-decarboxy-2,3- dehydrobetanin and 2-decarboxyneobetanin, respectively. In contrast to betanin, the reaction mechanism for 2-decarboxybetanin includes more oxidation pathways. Parallel transformation of 2-decarboxybetanin quinone methide produces neoderivatives according to an alternative reaction that omits the presumably more stabile intermediate 2-decarboxy-2,3-dehydrobetanin. The main oxidation product after the first reaction step for both 17-decarboxybetanin and 2,17-bidecarboxybetanin is 2,17-decarboxy-2,3-dehydrobetanin. This product is formed through irreversible decarboxylation of the 17-decarboxybetanin quinone methide or by oxidation of 2,17-bidecarboxybetanin. Oxidation of neobetanin results primarily in a formation of 2-decarboxy-2,3-dehydroneobetanin by a decarboxylative transformation of the formed neobetanin quinone methide. The elucidated reaction scheme will be useful in interpretation of redox activities of betalains in biological tissues and food preparations. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Wybraniec S.,Cracow University of Technology | Starzak K.,Cracow University of Technology | Pietrzkowski Z.,FutureCeuticals Inc.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

This study presents a comparative evaluation of chlorination of betanin, betanidin, and neobetanin exposed to sodium hypochlorite and myeloperoxidase (MPO)/H2O2/Cl- systems. For betanin/betanidin, the chlorination takes place at the aglycone unit, but for neobetanin, no chlorinated products in the reaction mixtures can be detected. In the RP-HPLC system, monochloro-betanin/-betanidin were eluted earlier than their corresponding nonchlorinated substrates. An influence of Cl- concentration on betanin/betanidin chlorination efficiency in sodium hypochlorite and MPO systems was investigated. At pH 3-5, the yields of formed monochloro-betanin/-betanidin decrease dramatically at higher Cl- concentrations, indicating that generated Cl2 is not the chlorinating agent in the presence of sodium hypochlorite. The intriguing low activity of Cl2 in betanin/betanidin chlorination compared to HOCl and/or Cl2O can be explained by a special position of the attack by molecules of HOCl and/or Cl2O. In the MPO/H2O2/Cl- system, the highest efficiency of monochloro-betanin/-betanidin generation is observed at pH 5. © 2016 American Chemical Society.


Pietrzkowski Z.,FutureCeuticals Inc | Phelan M.J.,University of California at Irvine | Keller R.,NutraClinical Inc | Shu C.,FutureCeuticals Inc | And 2 more authors.
Clinical Interventions in Aging | Year: 2014

Calcium fructoborate (CFB) at a dose of 110 mg twice per day was previously reported to improve knee discomfort during the first 14 days of treatment. In this study, 60 participants with self-reported knee discomfort were randomized into two groups receiving CFB or placebo. Initial levels of knee discomfort were evaluated by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) scores at the beginning of the study and also at 7 and 14 days after treatment. Results showed that supplementation with CFB significantly improved knee discomfort in the study subjects; significant reductions of mean within-subject change in WOMAC and MPQ scores were observed for the CFB group compared to the placebo group at both 7 and 14 days after treatment. Estimated treatment differences for the MPQ score were -5.8 (P=0.0009) and -8.9 (P<0.0001) at Day 7 and 14, respectively. Estimated differences for the WOMAC score were -5.3 (P=0.06) and -13.73 (P<0.0001) at Day 7 and 14, respectively. Negative values indicate greater reductions in reported discomfort. On both Day 7 and Day 14, the trend was toward greater improvement in the CFB group. The placebo group did not exhibit any change in the WOMAC and MPQ scores. In conclusion, supplementation with 110 mg CFB twice per day was associated with improving knee discomfort during the 2 weeks of intake. © 2014 Pietrzkowski et al.


PubMed | FutureCeuticals Inc. and Cracow University of Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agricultural and food chemistry | Year: 2016

This study presents a comparative evaluation of chlorination of betanin, betanidin, and neobetanin exposed to sodium hypochlorite and myeloperoxidase (MPO)/H2O2/Cl(-) systems. For betanin/betanidin, the chlorination takes place at the aglycone unit, but for neobetanin, no chlorinated products in the reaction mixtures can be detected. In the RP-HPLC system, monochloro-betanin/-betanidin were eluted earlier than their corresponding nonchlorinated substrates. An influence of Cl(-) concentration on betanin/betanidin chlorination efficiency in sodium hypochlorite and MPO systems was investigated. At pH 3-5, the yields of formed monochloro-betanin/-betanidin decrease dramatically at higher Cl(-) concentrations, indicating that generated Cl2 is not the chlorinating agent in the presence of sodium hypochlorite. The intriguing low activity of Cl2 in betanin/betanidin chlorination compared to HOCl and/or Cl2O can be explained by a special position of the attack by molecules of HOCl and/or Cl2O. In the MPO/H2O2/Cl(-) system, the highest efficiency of monochloro-betanin/-betanidin generation is observed at pH 5.


Dumitru M.D.,Queen's University of Belfast | Miljkovic D.,FutureCeuticals Company | Scorei R.I.,University of Craiova | Rotaru P.,University of Craiova
Annals of the University of Craiova, Physics | Year: 2010

In this paper we deeply investigate molecular composition of the calcium fructoborate used as a dietary supplement for the human nutrition, by using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic analysis. The experimental measurements agree very well with the molecular formula Ca[(C6H10O6)2B]2 · 4H2O.


Mullen W.,University of Glasgow | Nemzer B.,FutureCeuticals Inc. | Stalmach A.,University of Glasgow | Ali S.,University of Glasgow | Combet E.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Air-dried whole coffee fruits, beans, and husks from China, India, and Mexico were analyzed for their chlorogenic acids (CGA), caffeine, and polyphenolic content. Analysis was by HPLC and Orbitrap exact mass spectrometry. Total phenol, total flavonol, and antioxidant capacity were measured. The hydroxycinnamate profile consisted of caffeoylquinic acids, feruloyquinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic acids, and caffeoyl-feruloylquinic acids. A range of flavan-3-ols as well as flavonol conjugates were detected. The CGA content was similar for both Mexican and Indian coffee fruits but was much lower in the samples from China. Highest levels of flavan-3-ols were found in the Indian samples, whereas the Mexican samples contained the highest flavonols. Amounts of CGAs in the beans were similar to those in the whole fruits, but flavan-3-ols and flavonols were not detected. The husks contained the same range of polyphenols as those in the whole fruits. The highest levels of caffeine were found in the Robusta samples. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

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