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Dumitru M.D.,Queens University of Belfast | Miljkovic D.,FutureCeuticals Inc. | Scorei R.I.,University of Craiova | Rotaru P.,University of Craiova
Annals of the University of Craiova, Physics | Year: 2010

In this paper we deeply investigate molecular composition of the calcium fructoborate used as a dietary supplement for the human nutrition, by using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic analysis. The experimental measurements agree very well with the molecular formula Ca[(C6H10O6)2B]2 · 4H2O. Source

Reyes-Izquierdo T.,Applied BioClinical Inc. | Nemzer B.,FutureCeuticals Inc. | Shu C.,Applied BioClinical Inc. | Huynh L.,Applied BioClinical Inc. | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

The present single-dose study was performed to assess the effect of whole coffee fruit concentrate powder (WCFC), green coffee caffeine powder (N677), grape seed extract powder (N31) and green coffee bean extract powder (N625) on blood levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Randomly assorted groups of fasted subjects consumed a single, 100 mg dose of each material. Plasma samples were collected at time zero (T 0) and at 30 min intervals afterwards, up to 120 min. A total of two control groups were included: subjects treated with silica dioxide (as placebo) or with no treatment. The collected data revealed that treatments with N31 and N677 increased levels of plasma BDNF by about 31 % under these experimental conditions, whereas treatment with WCFC increased it by 143 % (n 10), compared with baseline. These results indicate that WCFC could be used for modulation of BDNF-dependent health conditions. However, larger clinical studies are needed to support this possibility. © 2013 The Authors. Source

Wybraniec S.,Cracow University of Technology | Starzak K.,Cracow University of Technology | Skopinska A.,Cracow University of Technology | Nemzer B.,FutureCeuticals Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

A comprehensive nonenzymatic oxidation mechanism in betanin plant pigment as well as its derivatives, 2-decarboxybetanin, 17-decarboxybetanin, 2,17-bidecarboxybetanin, and neobetanin, in the presence of ABTS cation radicals was investigated by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The main compounds formed during the first step of betanin and 2-decarboxybetanin oxidation are 2-decarboxy-2,3- dehydrobetanin and 2-decarboxyneobetanin, respectively. In contrast to betanin, the reaction mechanism for 2-decarboxybetanin includes more oxidation pathways. Parallel transformation of 2-decarboxybetanin quinone methide produces neoderivatives according to an alternative reaction that omits the presumably more stabile intermediate 2-decarboxy-2,3-dehydrobetanin. The main oxidation product after the first reaction step for both 17-decarboxybetanin and 2,17-bidecarboxybetanin is 2,17-decarboxy-2,3-dehydrobetanin. This product is formed through irreversible decarboxylation of the 17-decarboxybetanin quinone methide or by oxidation of 2,17-bidecarboxybetanin. Oxidation of neobetanin results primarily in a formation of 2-decarboxy-2,3-dehydroneobetanin by a decarboxylative transformation of the formed neobetanin quinone methide. The elucidated reaction scheme will be useful in interpretation of redox activities of betalains in biological tissues and food preparations. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Mullen W.,University of Glasgow | Nemzer B.,FutureCeuticals Inc. | Stalmach A.,University of Glasgow | Ali S.,University of Glasgow | Combet E.,University of Glasgow
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Air-dried whole coffee fruits, beans, and husks from China, India, and Mexico were analyzed for their chlorogenic acids (CGA), caffeine, and polyphenolic content. Analysis was by HPLC and Orbitrap exact mass spectrometry. Total phenol, total flavonol, and antioxidant capacity were measured. The hydroxycinnamate profile consisted of caffeoylquinic acids, feruloyquinic acids, dicaffeoylquinic acids, and caffeoyl-feruloylquinic acids. A range of flavan-3-ols as well as flavonol conjugates were detected. The CGA content was similar for both Mexican and Indian coffee fruits but was much lower in the samples from China. Highest levels of flavan-3-ols were found in the Indian samples, whereas the Mexican samples contained the highest flavonols. Amounts of CGAs in the beans were similar to those in the whole fruits, but flavan-3-ols and flavonols were not detected. The husks contained the same range of polyphenols as those in the whole fruits. The highest levels of caffeine were found in the Robusta samples. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Wybraniec S.,Cracow University of Technology | Starzak K.,Cracow University of Technology | Pietrzkowski Z.,FutureCeuticals Inc.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2016

This study presents a comparative evaluation of chlorination of betanin, betanidin, and neobetanin exposed to sodium hypochlorite and myeloperoxidase (MPO)/H2O2/Cl- systems. For betanin/betanidin, the chlorination takes place at the aglycone unit, but for neobetanin, no chlorinated products in the reaction mixtures can be detected. In the RP-HPLC system, monochloro-betanin/-betanidin were eluted earlier than their corresponding nonchlorinated substrates. An influence of Cl- concentration on betanin/betanidin chlorination efficiency in sodium hypochlorite and MPO systems was investigated. At pH 3-5, the yields of formed monochloro-betanin/-betanidin decrease dramatically at higher Cl- concentrations, indicating that generated Cl2 is not the chlorinating agent in the presence of sodium hypochlorite. The intriguing low activity of Cl2 in betanin/betanidin chlorination compared to HOCl and/or Cl2O can be explained by a special position of the attack by molecules of HOCl and/or Cl2O. In the MPO/H2O2/Cl- system, the highest efficiency of monochloro-betanin/-betanidin generation is observed at pH 5. © 2016 American Chemical Society. Source

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