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Abdel Mouez M.,Ain Shams University | Abdel Mouez M.,Future University Egypt | Zaki N.M.,Ain Shams University | Mansour S.,Ain Shams University | Geneidi A.S.,Ain Shams University
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014

Chitosan microspheres are potential drug carriers for maximizing nasal residence time, circumventing rapid mucociliary clearance and enhancing nasal absorption. The aim of the present study was to develop and characterize chitosan mucoadhesive microspheres of verapamil hydrochloride (VRP) for intranasal delivery as an alternative to oral VRP which suffers low bioavailability (20%) due to extensive first pass effect. The microspheres were produced using a spray-drying and precipitation techniques and characterized for morphology (scanning electron microscopy), particle size (laser diffraction method), drug entrapment efficiency, thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry) and crystallinity (X-ray diffractometric studies) as well as in vitro drug release. Bioavailability of nasal VRP microspheres was studied in rabbits and the results were compared to those obtained after nasal, oral and intravenous administration of VRP solution. Results demonstrated that the microspheres were spherical with size 21-53 μm suitable for nasal deposition. The spray-drying technique was superior over precipitation technique in providing higher VRP entrapment efficiency and smaller burst release followed by a more sustained one over 6 h. The bioavailability study demonstrated that the nasal microspheres exhibited a significantly higher bioavailability (58.6%) than nasal solution of VRP (47.8%) and oral VRP solution (13%). In conclusion, the chitosan-based nasal VRP microspheres are promising for enhancing VRP bioavailability by increasing the nasal residence time and avoiding the first-pass metabolism of the drug substance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Mobarak D.H.,Cairo University | Salah S.,Cairo University | Elkheshen S.A.,Future University Egypt
Pharmaceutical Development and Technology | Year: 2014

Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA 502 H) nanoparticles incorporating ciprofloxacin HCl (CP) were prepared by double emulsion solvent diffusion technique. Methods: The influence of the application of probe sonication besides the high pressure homogenization in the preparation of the secondary emulsion and its application during the solidification step were studied. Their effect on the particle size, Zeta potential and the percent encapsulation efficiency of the drug (EE %) were investigated. The effect of the addition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) during the preparation of the primary emulsion was studied. Moreover, the effect of the addition of 0.1M sodium chloride and/or adjusting the external and extracting phases to pH 7.4 were investigated. The selected formula was examined using IR, X-ray, DSC and SEM and in vitro drug release. Results: These formulations showed an appropriate particle size ranges between 135.7-187.85 nm, a mean zeta potential ranging from-0.839 to-6.81mV and a mean EE% which ranged from 35% to 69%. Conclusion: The presented data revealed the superiority of using probe sonication besides high pressure homogenization during the formation of secondary emulsion. Moreover, the results indicated that the tested factors had a pronounced significant effect on the EE%. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

El Said G.R.,Future University Egypt
Journal of Educational Computing Research | Year: 2017

This article presents a qualitative study on Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) dropout in a developing world. Thematic analyses of semistructured interviews were conducted with 52 learners, eight weeks after their actual registration for a course of their choice as part of a self-learning activity. The results uncover novel design factors affecting MOOC retention. Among these factors are Learner Control, in which users can design their own long-term learning track from various course modules; Integrative Design, comprising learners' own accounts on social media; and Independent Design, in which a course's modules can be taught separately and learners need not complete an overall course but rather can select modules from various courses. Mobility and Language are identified as important decisive factors for users to drop out from or complete a MOOC Course. This research also highlights the importance of Diversity and Novelty for this type of application. The research reveals the Multitasking Behavior of users, leading to the need for Easy-to-Scan content. The findings provide a basis for improving the understanding toward reasons for MOOC drops and suggest a number of practical design recommendations for designers and providers. Furthermore, the completion rate observed in this study was slightly higher than was typically found in previous studies. This result might suggest that using a MOOC as a learning opportunity within the context of a university-accredited program would increase the likelihood of completion. © The Author(s) 2016.

El-Assal M.I.A.,Future University Egypt
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research | Year: 2016

The purpose of contemporary study was to project GNP by using of two step desolvation method. Biodegradable hydrophilic gelatin nanoparticles used as a delivery system of anti-inflammatory lornoxicam after gel formulation using each of hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and carbopol as gelling agent. The size and shape of the nanoparticles were examined by optical microscope and transmission electron microscopy, particles with a mean diameter of 240.6 nm and 0.1 poly dispersibility index PDI were produced and the percentage of entrapment efficiency was found to be 87.1%. The optimum amount of LOR loading was obtained. Four formulas were prepared F1, F2 are slandered drug gel and F3 and F4 are GNP-LOR gel. Permeation of drug through membrane was determined by Franz diffusion cell. Further stability studies were carried out at 4°C for a period of 8 weeks. Vivo study was carried on white albino male rats to compare between different lornoxicam gel formulations. Results show that the two step desolvation is an appropriate method for preparing GNP as a delivery vehicle for LOR gel which gives sustained drug release. LORF3 which has carbopol as gelling agent was of lower release rate as regard carbopol was found to be a good choice for formulating LOR as topical formulation. © 2016, Global Research Online. All rights reserved.

Elrawi O.M.,Future University Egypt
Proceedings - 2017 International Conference on Machine Vision and Information Technology, CMVIT 2017 | Year: 2017

Left in the wake of cataclysmic change are the knowledge creation and holding structure of the past. Information knowledge and culture are central to human freedom and human development. How they are produced and exchanged in our society critically affects the way we see the state of the world as it is and might be. In recent years Mixed Reality (MR) has emerged as an area of extreme interest for visualizing and interacting with three-dimensional (3D) information in context, set in a story that reinforces learning and understanding of the cultural content. A commonly used and very inclusive definition of MR is that of all applications between pure Virtual Reality and the real world. How can we provide an intuitive user-friendly application for cultural heritage, which blends virtual imagery with the actual world, where users operate and interact with the information? How effectively can historical information and visual interpretations of the past be disseminated through such technologies? 'Tangible Pasts' consists of cultural domain expressing and analyzing the intended meaning of the shared vocabulary of concepts and relations in a domain of knowledge containing hierarchical classification systems and structured vocabularies with rich inter-linking of conceptual 'trees' i.e.: An object-oriented conceptual KC 'Knowledge Cube', which combines audio-visual information and three dimensional models and animations. Modern cultural heritage exhibitions have evolved from static exhibitions to dynamic and challenging multimedia explorations. The main goal of visualization is to bring understanding of data. The task is to present complex information in the most comprehensive manner. Considering architectural artefacts, the visualization process is mostly focused on the understanding of spatial relations and on the recognition of particular style and form, letting users see characters and events in the past. This paper describes a storytelling-driven framework for Islamic Cultural Heritage representation that supports a new communication strategy able to combine content belonging to different cultural archives and accessed through an ontology-based integration and discovery mechanism, and fosters new data sharing and distribution policies that preserve the intellectual property rights of the involved institutions. © 2017 IEEE.

Mahmoud A.A.,National Research Center of Egypt | Mahmoud A.A.,Future University Egypt | Salama A.H.,National Research Center of Egypt
European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2016

Biomaterial scaffolds are versatile tools as drug carrier for treatment of wounds. A series of norfloxacin-loaded scaffolds were synthesized for treatment of wounds by combining collagen with two different types of chitosan using freeze-drying technique. Subsequently, scaffolds were screened in terms of morphology, water absorption and retention capacity, biodegradation, ex-vivo bioadhesive strength, in-vitro drug release biological compatibility, X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry as well as in-vivo evaluation. The results indicate that the scaffold mechanical strength is dependent on the type of used chitosan. The prepared scaffolds contained interconnected porous architecture. The scaffolds had high water uptake and retention capacity with extended biodegradation rate. Scaffolds prepared with chitosan HCl showed superior bioadhesive strength compared to those prepared with low molecular weight chitosan. All scaffolds showed almost 100% drug release within 24 h. As identified by the terahertz pulsed imaging measurements, there is single scaffold area with the same concentration. After 28 days of wound dressing with selected norfoloxacin-loaded or unloaded collagen/chitosan scaffolds in Albino rats, it was found that the tissue regeneration time was fast compared to non-treated wounds. Furthermore, the drug-loaded scaffolds showed normal structure of an intact epidermal layer as well as the underlying dermis as revealed by histopathological studies. The obtained results suggest that the investigated norfloxacin-loaded collagen/chitosan scaffold is a potential candidate for skin regeneration application. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

El-Assal M.I.A.,Future University Egypt
International Journal of Drug Delivery Technology | Year: 2017

Objective of the present investigation was enthused by the possibility to develop solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of hydrophilic drug acyclovir. Also study vitro and vivo drug delivery. Methods: Drug loaded SLNs (ACV-SLNs) were prepared by high pressure homogenization of aqueous surfactant solutions containing the drug-loaded lipids in the melted or in the solid state with formula optimization study (Different lipid concentration, drug loaded, homogenization / stirring speed and compritol 888ATO: drug ratio). ACV - SLN incorporated in cream base. The pH was evaluated and rheological study. Drug release was evaluated and compared with simple cream- drug, ACV – SLN with compritol 888ATO and marketed cream. The potential of SLN as the carrier for dermal delivery was studied. Results: Particle size analysis of SLNs prove small, smooth, spherical shape particle ranged from 150 to 200 nm for unloaded and from 330 to 444 nm for ACV loaded particles. The EE% for optimal formula is 72% with suitable pH for skin application. Rheological behavior is shear thinning and thixotropic. Release study proved controlled drug release for SLNs especially in formula containing compritol88 ATO. Stability study emphasized an insignificant change in SLNs properties over 6 month. In-vivo study showed significantly higher accumulation of ACV in stratum corneum, dermal layer, and receptor compartment compared with blank skin. Conclusion: AVC-loaded SLNs might be beneficial in controlling drug release, stable and improving dermal delivery of antiviral agent(s). © 2017, International Journal of Drug Delivery Technology. All rights reserved.

Nagy M.M.,Ain Shams University | Tawfik H.E.,Ain Shams University | Hashem A.A.R.,Ain Shams University | Hashem A.A.R.,Future University Egypt | Abu-Seida A.M.,Cairo University
Journal of Endodontics | Year: 2014

Introduction Regenerative endodontics is a promising alternative treatment for immature teeth with necrotic pulps. The present study was performed to assess the regenerative potential of young permanent immature teeth with necrotic pulp after the following treatment protocols: (1) a mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) apical plug, (2) the regenerative endodontic protocol (blood clot scaffold), and (3) the regenerative endodontic protocol with a blood clot and an injectable scaffold impregnated with basic fibroblast growth factor. Methods Immature necrotic permanent maxillary central incisors (n = 36) of patients 9-13 years old were divided into 3 groups according to the treatment protocol: the MTA group (MTA apical plug), the REG group (regenerative endodontic protocol [blood clot]), and the FGF group (regenerative endodontic protocol [blood clot + injectable scaffold]). Follow-up was done up to 18 months. Standardized radiographs were digitally evaluated for an increase in root length and thickness, a decrease in the apical diameter, and a change in periapical bone density. Results After a follow-up period of 18 months, most of the cases showed radiographic evidence of periapical healing. Groups 2 and 3 showed a progressive increase in root length and width and a decrease in apical diameter. Conclusions The regenerative endodontic procedure allowed the continued development of roots in teeth with necrotic pulps. The use of artificial hydrogel scaffold and basic fibroblast growth factor was not essential for repair. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists.

Taher A.T.,Cairo University | Georgey H.H.,Cairo University | El-Subbagh H.I.,Future University Egypt
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2012

The synthesis of some new heterodiazole and their annulated imidazo[2,1-b]1,3,4-oxa/thiadiazolone 6a-d, 7a-d; 1,3,4-oxa or thiadiazole[3,2-a]pyrimidine diamine 8a-d and 1,3,4-oxa or thiadiazole-3- piperidino-1-propamide 11a,b derivatives have been described. The obtained compounds were evaluated for their in-vitro antitumor activity. A single dose (10 μM) of the test compounds were used in the full National Cancer Institute (NCI) 60 cell lines panel assay. Compounds 6c and 6d displayed appreciable anticancer activity against leukemia, non-small cell lung, CNS and showed moderate activity against colon, melanoma, and breast cancer cells lines. Compound 6c possessed remarkable broad-spectrum antitumor activity which almost 4 fold more active than the known drug 5-FU with GI 50, TGI, and LC 50 values of 6.0, 17.4, and 55.1 μM, respectively. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Fahmy O.M.,Future University Egypt
2015 22nd International Conference on Systems, Signals and Image Processing - Proceedings of IWSSIP 2015 | Year: 2015

In multimedia forensics, source-based image classification problem is a well known problem. It addresses the issue of identifying those images that were captured by a specific source camera from a given set of N data images. This is possible as each camera has a unique Photo Response Non-Uniformity (PRNU) that is registered in every image captured by this camera. Classification is made by clustering images having the same PRNU. In this paper, an efficient technique is proposed to group images originated by the same camera. It is based on evaluating the similarity functions between the estimated PRNUs as well as their Hu's moment invariant information. The proposed technique has the ability to group images taken by a specific camera, even if the input images correspond to the same scene that was captured by different cameras. The classification algorithm is performed by means of a hierarchical clustering. Simulation examples are given to verify the superiority of the proposed technique compared to other techniques. © 2015 IEEE.

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