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Belfast, United Kingdom

Abdelghany S.M.,Queens University of Belfast | Schmid D.,Queens University of Belfast | Deacon J.,Queens University of Belfast | Jaworski J.,Queens University of Belfast | And 7 more authors.
Biomacromolecules | Year: 2013

meso-Tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl) porphine tetra tosylate (TMP) is a photosensitizer that can be used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) to induce cell death through generation of reactive oxygen species in targeted tumor cells. However, TMP is highly hydrophilic, and therefore, its ability to accumulate intracellularly is limited. In this study, a strategy to improve TMP uptake into cells has been investigated by encapsulating the compound in a hydrogel-based chitosan/alginate nanoparticle formulation. Nanoparticles of 560 nm in diameter entrapping 9.1 μg of TMP per mg of formulation were produced and examined in cell-based assays. These particles were endocytosed into human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells and elicited a more potent photocytotoxic effect than free drug. Antibodies targeting death receptor 5 (DR5), a cell surface apoptosis-inducing receptor up-regulated in various types of cancer and found on HCT116 cells, were then conjugated onto the particles. The conjugated antibodies further enhanced uptake and cytotoxic potency of the nanoparticle. Taken together, these results show that antibody-conjugated chitosan/alginate nanoparticles significantly enhanced the therapeutic effectiveness of entrapped TMP. This novel approach provides a strategy for providing targeted site-specific delivery of TMP and other photosensitizer drugs to treat colorectal tumors using PDT. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Fusion Antibodies | Date: 2011-03-18

Described are specific binding members e.g. antibodies which may be used in the treatment of diseases associated with cathepsin S activity. The specific binding members bind cathepsin S and inhibit its proteolytic activity. The binding members may be used in the treatment of diseases such as cancer, inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmune disorders, and other diseases associated with excessive, deregulated or inappropriate angiogenesis

Whelan C.,Enfer Scientific | Whelan A.O.,Veterinary Laboratories Agency VLA Weybridge | Shuralev E.,Enfer Scientific | Kwok H.F.,Fusion Antibodies | And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2010

Rapid, simple, and accurate antemortem tests for tuberculosis (TB) in cattle need to be developed in order to augment the existing screening methods. In particular, as cattle vaccines are developed, such tests would allow the continuation of test-and-slaughter policies alongside vaccination. Therefore, the development of an assay that distinguishes infected from vaccinated animals (a DIVA test) is an urgent research requirement. In this study, we assessed the performance of a novel multiplex serological test with sera collected from 96 skin-tested animals with bovine tuberculosis, 93 TB-free animals, and 39 cattle vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Our results indicate that the test has a relative sensitivity range of 77.0% to 86.5% at corresponding specificity levels of 100.0% to 77.6%. Comparison with the Bovigam gamma interferon antemortem test revealed that this serology test was significantly more sensitive at specificities above 97.9%, while the Bovigam test was, on average, about 10% more sensitive when the test specificity was set below 97%. Importantly, this serological multiplex assay does not react with sera from BCG-vaccinated calves and is therefore suitable as a DIVA test alongside BCG-based vaccine strategies. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Vazquez R.,Oncology Therapeutic Development | Vazquez R.,Laboratory of Anti tumor Pharmacology | Astorgues-Xerri L.,Oncology Therapeutic Development | Astorgues-Xerri L.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 9 more authors.
Biochimie | Year: 2015

Degradation of extracellular matrix components is a key step in tumor progression, facilitating invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. The lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S (Cat-S) is a prominent player in this process. We evaluated the antitumor activity of Fsn0503h, the first Cat-S-antagonistic humanized monoclonal antibody, in a panel of cancer cell lines and in human colon carcinoma xenografts. Cat-S was expressed in 11 out of 36 solid tumor-derived cell lines. Fsn0503h significantly reduced the invasive capacity of all Cat-S-expressing cell lines in vitro. This was confirmed by the Cat-S small-molecule inhibitor Z-FL-COCHO, validating the importance of this protease in tumor cell invasiveness. Interestingly, Fsn0503h displayed antiproliferative effects in Cat-S positive and some Cat-S-negative cell lines. We provide the first demonstration of in vivo activity of Fsn0503h against a colorectal tumor xenograft model, with a 10 mg/kg three times a week intravenous schedule being optimal. In conclusion, Fsn0503h not only inhibited the invasiveness of cancer cells in vitro, but also exerted antitumor effects both in vitro and in vivo. These findings validate Cat-S as a therapeutic target, and support the development of Fsn0503h for the therapy of solid tumors. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and Société française de biochimie et biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved. Source

Kwok H.F.,Fusion Antibodies | Buick R.J.,Fusion Antibodies | Kuehn D.,Fusion Antibodies | Gormley J.A.,Fusion Antibodies | And 21 more authors.
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2011

Background: Proteolytic enzymes have been implicated in driving tumor progression by means of their cancer cell microenvironment activity where they promote proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. Therapeutic strategies have focused on attenuating their activity using small molecule inhibitors, but the association of proteases with the cell surface during cancer progression opens up the possibility of targeting these using antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Cathepsin S is a lysosomal cysteine protease that promotes the growth and invasion of tumour and endothelial cells during cancer progression. Our analysis of colorectal cancer patient biopsies shows that cathepsin S associates with the cell membrane indicating a potential for ADCC targeting.Results: Here we report the cell surface characterization of cathepsin S and the development of a humanized antibody (Fsn0503h) with immune effector function and a stable in vivo half-life of 274 hours. Cathepsin S is expressed on the surface of tumor cells representative of colorectal and pancreatic cancer (23%-79% positive expression). Furthermore the binding of Fsn0503h to surface associated cathepsin S results in natural killer (NK) cell targeted tumor killing. In a colorectal cancer model Fsn0503h elicits a 22% cytotoxic effect.Conclusions: This data highlights the potential to target cell surface associated enzymes, such as cathepsin S, as therapeutic targets using antibodies capable of elicitingADCC in tumor cells. © 2011 Kwok et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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