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Meliopoulos A.P.S.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Cokkinides G.J.,Georgia Institute of Technology | James R.,Entergy | Syarif C.,Fushi Copperweld Inc. | Fox D.,Fushi Copperweld Inc.
IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting

This paper presents a commentary, computational procedures for design of grounding systems using copper or Copperweld® ground conductors and comparison of these designs. The methodology is based on the IEEE Std 80. Safety and integrity of the grounding system can be achieved by proper selection of ground conductor sizes and installation procedures. The paper examines the technical performance of Copperweld® ground conductor systems and provides a number of example designs. It is concluded that the performance of ground systems designed with copper conductors or with comparable Copperweld® conductors is similar. The use of Copperweld® conductors, is a viable technical solution with the additional benefit of being a good deterrent against theft. © 2012 IEEE. Source

Sasaki T.T.,University of Alabama | Barkey M.,University of Alabama | Thompson G.B.,University of Alabama | Syarif Y.,Fushi Copperweld Inc. | Fox D.,Fushi Copperweld Inc.
Materials Science and Engineering A

We investigated the microstructure of two different bimetallic wires of Copper Clad Low Carbon Steel Wire (LCSW), which had a 1006 steel core, and Copper Clad High Carbon Steel Wire (HCSW), which had a 1055 steel core. The HCSW generally showed higher hardness than LCSW because of the pearlitic grain structure. A low temperature annealing at 720 °C to the drawn HCSW caused a significant reduction of hardness, which was as low as that of an annealed LCSW. In general, both LCSW and HCSW showed strong global textured features after drawing, with the steel having a strong 〈1. 1. 0〉 fiber texture and the copper having a 〈1. 1. 1. 〉-〈1. 1. 2〉 deformation direction. At the interface, a grain size discrepancy at the steel-copper interface was observed. Post-drawing, the LCSW copper grains exhibited refined grain sizes near the interface and has been explained in terms of shear strain gradient. The HCSW did not exhibit this copper grain size distribution but did exhibit a coarsening of the steel grains near the interface after a subsequent 720 °C heat treatment. This is attributed to the large localized stress concentration at the perimeter of the steel region during the drawing process. The strain induced regions at the steel-copper interface have been simulated by finite element modeling. These grain size discrepancies caused the smooth variation in nanohardness across the interface. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Sasaki T.T.,University of Alabama | Morris R.A.,University of Alabama | Thompson G.B.,University of Alabama | Syarif Y.,Fushi Copperweld Inc. | Fox D.,Fushi Copperweld Inc.
Scripta Materialia

The microstructure formation at the interface in a copper-clad aluminum bimetallic wire has been investigated. Ultra-fine copper grains with sizes of 200 nm are formed near the Cu/Al interface when the wire is drawn after heat treatment. The formation of the ultra-fine copper grains is attributed to low-temperature recrystallization from strain that develops as the copper plastically flows around a broken dispersion of intermetallics at the interface. The ultra-fine copper grains added extra strength to the Cu/Al interface. © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Source

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