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Greenville, SC, United States

Furman University is a private, coeducational liberal arts college in Travelers Rest, South Carolina, United States, slightly north of Greenville, the city it is normally associated with by campus address and brand identity. Furman is South Carolina's oldest private university. Founded in 1826, Furman enrolls approximately 2,700 undergraduate students on its 750-acre campus. The university was named for Richard Furman of Charleston, SC, a prominent minister and president of the Triennial Convention, the first Baptist convention in America.Furman offers majors and programs in 42 subjects. Most of Furman's 2,700 undergraduates are from the South Atlantic region, but 46 states and 53 foreign countries are represented in its student population. Furman is a member of the Associated Colleges of the South. Wikipedia.

Strunk B.S.,Scripps Research Institute | Novak M.N.,Scripps Research Institute | Novak M.N.,Furman University | Young C.L.,Scripps Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Cell | Year: 2012

Assembly factors (AFs) prevent premature translation initiation on small (40S) ribosomal subunit assembly intermediates by blocking ligand binding. However, it is unclear how AFs are displaced from maturing 40S ribosomes, if or how maturing subunits are assessed for fidelity, and what prevents premature translation initiation once AFs dissociate. Here we show that maturation involves a translation-like cycle whereby the translation factor eIF5B, a GTPase, promotes joining of large (60S) subunits with pre-40S subunits to give 80S-like complexes, which are subsequently disassembled by the termination factor Rli1, an ATPase. The AFs Tsr1 and Rio2 block the mRNA channel and initiator tRNA binding site, and therefore 80S-like ribosomes lack mRNA or initiator tRNA. After Tsr1 and Rio2 dissociate from 80S-like complexes Rli1-directed displacement of 60S subunits allows for translation initiation. This cycle thus provides a functional test of 60S subunit binding and the GTPase site before ribosomes enter the translating pool. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Pollard A.J.,Furman University | Baker A.J.M.,University of Queensland
Plant Science | Year: 2014

Approximately 500 species of plants are known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals and metalloids. The majority are obligate metallophytes, species that are restricted to metalliferous soils. However, a smaller but increasing list of plants are "facultative hyperaccumulators" that hyperaccumulate heavy metals when occurring on metalliferous soils, yet also occur commonly on normal, non-metalliferous soils. This paper reviews the biology of facultative hyperaccumulators and the opportunities they provide for ecological and evolutionary research. The existence of facultative hyperaccumulator populations across a wide edaphic range allows intraspecific comparisons of tolerance and uptake physiology. This approach has been used to study zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation by Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri, and it will be instructive to make similar comparisons on species that are distributed even more abundantly on normal soil. Over 90% of known hyperaccumulators occur on serpentine (ultramafic) soil and accumulate nickel, yet there have paradoxically been few experimental studies of facultative nickel hyperaccumulation. Several hypotheses suggested to explain the evolution of hyperaccumulation seem unlikely when most populations of a species occur on normal soil, where plants cannot hyperaccumulate due to low metal availability. In such species, it may be that hyperaccumulation is an ancestral phylogenetic trait or an anomalous manifestation of physiological mechanisms evolved on normal soils, and may or may not have direct adaptive benefits. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Stetler C.,Furman University | Miller G.E.,University of British Columbia
Psychosomatic Medicine | Year: 2011

Objectives: To summarize quantitatively the literature comparing hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function between depressed and nondepressed individuals and to describe the important sources of variability in this literature. These sources include methodological differences between studies, as well as demographic or clinical differences between depressed samples. Methods: The current study used meta-analytic techniques to compare 671 effect sizes (cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, or corticotropin-releasing hormone) across 361 studies, including 18,454 individuals. Results: Although depressed individuals tended to display increased cortisol (d = 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54-0.66) and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels (d = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.16-0.41), they did not display elevations in corticotropin-releasing hormone (d = 0.02; 95% CI, -0.47-0.51). The magnitude of the cortisol effect was reduced by almost half (d = 0.33; 95% CI, 0.21-0.45) when analyses were limited to studies that met minimal methodological standards. Gender did not significantly modify any HPA outcome. Studies that included older hospitalized individuals reported significantly greater cortisol differences between depressed and nondepressed groups compared with studies with younger outpatient samples. Important cortisol differences also emerged for atypical, endogenous, melancholic, and psychotic forms of depression. Conclusions: The current study suggests that the degree of HPA hyperactivity can vary considerably across patient groups. Results are consistent with HPA hyperactivity as a link between depression and increased risk for conditions, such as diabetes, dementia, coronary heart disease, and osteoporosis. Such a link is strongest among older inpatients who display melancholic or psychotic features of depression. Copyright © 2011 by the American Psychosomatic Society.

Beymer-Farris B.A.,Furman University | Bassett T.J.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2012

Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) is being proclaimed as "a new direction in forest conservation" (Anglesen, 2009: 125). This financial incentives-based climate change mitigation strategy proposed by the UNEP, World Bank, GEF and environmental NGOs seeks to integrate forests into carbon sequestration schemes. Its proponents view REDD+ as part of an adaptive strategy to counter the effects of global climate change. This paper combines the theoretical approaches of market environmentalism and environmental narratives to examine the politics of environmental knowledge that are redefining socio-nature relations in the Rufiji Delta, Tanzania to make mangrove forests amenable to markets. Through a case study of a "REDD-readiness" climate change mitigation and adaptation project, we demonstrate how a shift in resource control and management from local to global actors builds upon narratives of environmental change (forest loss) that have little factual basis in environmental histories. We argue that the proponents of REDD+ (Tanzanian state, aid donors, environmental NGOs) underestimate the agency of forest-reliant communities who have played a major role in the making of the delta landscape and who will certainly resist the injustices they are facing as a result of this shift from community-based resource management to fortress conservation. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

In this paper we examine the Community of Inquiry framework (Garrison, Anderson, & Archer, 2000) suggesting that the model may be enhanced through a fuller articulation of the roles of online learners. We present the results of a study of 3165 students in online and hybrid courses from 42 two- and four-year institutions in which we examine the relationship between learner self-efficacy measures and their ratings of the quality of their learning in virtual environments. We conclude that a positive relationship exists between elements of the CoI framework and between elements of a nascent theoretical construct that we label "learning presence". We suggest that learning presence represents elements such as self-efficacy as well as other cognitive, behavioral, and motivational constructs supportive of online learner self-regulation. We suggest that this focused analysis on the active roles of online learners may contribute to a more thorough account of knowledge construction in technology-mediated environments expanding the descriptive and explanatory power of the Community of Inquiry framework. Learning presence: Towards a Theory of Self-efficacy, Self-regulation, and the Development of a Communities of Inquiry in Online and Blended Learning Environments. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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