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Santa Maria do Suaçuí, Brazil

Junior L.J.M.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Orth A.I.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Moretto G.,FURB
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2011

The pollination ecology of the blackberry (Rubus sp.) was studied by means of determining its reproductive system, the analysis of flower's nectar production. Sampling the insects that visited the blackberry flower in a cultivated area and analyzing the pollination behavior. The experiments were carried out in an area of blackberry crop, in December of 2005 in the city of Timbó (SC), Southern Brazil. The highest fruit set (48.3% ± 3,2) occurred in the free pollination (natural) treatment where insects were not excluded. The occurrence of selfing was verified, however with lower fruit set (12.2% ± 4,9). Anemophily was not observed in the species. The nectar evaluation in Rubus sp. resulted in values compatible with the melittophily syndrome. Bees (Hymenoptera) were the main floral visitors collected and observed on the flowers of Rubus sp., representing 97% of the individuals. They initiate the foraging activity at 8 a.m., with a peak activity at 12 a.m. and declining until 4 p.m. In the survey were sampled 1.360 bees, belonging to four families and 13 species. Halictidae was the family with highest amount of species (N = 7) and Apidae most abundant (1.288 individuals) in the survey. Apidae was mainly represented by Apis mellifera, which is an exotic species, whose sample was of 1.246 individuals. The data of the abundance and the observation of its behavior, pointed A. mellifera as the main pollinator of Rubus sp., in the studied area, but also confirms that the other native species of bees, participate in the pollination process of Rubus sp.

Japanese Raisin Tree (Hoveniadulcis Thunberg) is a widely spread species in South Brazil, but information on its growing patterns is rare. The aim of this work is to evaluate, through stem analysis, the diameter, height and volume growth of Hovenia dulcis in South Blumenau. Two trees were sampled, and their total height was measured. Discs were taken at 0.1 m, 0.7 m, 1.3 m. and at one-meter intervals along the length of the tree, until the minimum of 5 cm of diameter. The information on diameter, height and volume in function of the age were used to calculate the current and the mean annual increment. The diameter growth remained practically constant, until 20 years, without any definition of a peak of increment. The height growth presented decreasing rates, with a peak of current increment occurring in the fifth year and a peak of average annual increment in the eleventh year. The volume growthpresented increasing rates as result of the constant diameter growth. The artificial form factor followed a decreasing tendency until the thirteenth year and established since that moment.

A drying kiln schedules is a prescript, for every each species and thickness, of environmental conditions inside drying chamber, which equilibrate the drying rates and formation defects. Among the methodologies of drying kiln schedules elaboration, those based on application of empiric equations having the specific gravity as independent variable and those based on evaluation of small pieces during drastic drying are highlighted. The objective of this research was to apply and to compare these two methodologies for drying kiln schedules elaboration for marupá, pará-pará and virola. The parameters for drying schedules elaboration were experimentally obtained on 32, 32 and 29 pieces of marupá, pará-pará and virola, respectively. Comparing the drying potential obtained by different methods, it was different at all steps for all species, and the dry bulb temperature is different until the moisture content of 30% for marupá and virola and under this point for pará-pará.

Somensi C.A.,FURB | Simionatto E.L.,FURB | Bertoli S.L.,FURB | Wisniewski Jr. A.,FURB | Radetski C.M.,Vale do Itajai University
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2010

In this study, ozonation of raw textile wastewater was conducted in a pilot-scale plant and the efficiency of this treatment was evaluated based on the parameters color removal and soluble organic matter measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD), at two pH values (9.1 and 3.0). Identification of intermediate and final degradation products of ozone pre-treatment, as well as the evaluation of the final ecotoxicity (Lumistox test) of pre-treated wastewater, was also carried out. After 4 h of ozone treatment with wastewater recirculation (flow rate of 0.45 m3 h-1) the average efficiencies for color removal were 67.5% (pH 9.1) and 40.6% (pH 3.0), while COD reduction was 25.5% (pH 9.1) and 18.7% (pH 3.0) for an ozone production capacity of 20 g h-1. Furthermore, ozonation enhances the biodegradability of textile wastewater (BOD5/COD ratios) by a factor of up to 6.8-fold. A GC-MS analysis of pre-treated textile wastewater showed that some products were present at the end of the pre-treatment time. In spite of this fact, the bacterial luminescence inhibition test (Lumistox test) showed a significant toxicity reduction on comparing the raw and treated textile wastewater. In conclusion, pre-ozonation of textile wastewater is an important step in terms of improving wastewater biodegradability, as well as reducing acute ecotoxicity, which should be removed completely through sequential biological treatment. © 2009.

The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) are widely used for their medicinal and flavoring properties, whereas the influence of root symbionts on their growth is poorly understood. In this study, the effects of phosphate fertilization and inoculation with a mixture of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (isolates Glomus clarum RGS101A, Entrophospora colombiana SCT115A and Acaulospora koskei SPL102A) on survival, growth and development of micropropagated ginger were investigated. After transplanting to post vitro conditions, the ginger microplants were subjected to the following treatments: a) AMF mixture, b) P addition (25 mg kg-1), c) AMF + P, and d) non-mycorrhizal control without P addition. After eight months of growth, survival ranged from 86 to 100 % in the AMF and AMF+P treatments versus 71 % survival in control and P treatments. In the AMF, P and AMF+P treatments, the shoot, root and rhizome biomass production were significantly larger than in the control plants. In the nonmycorrhizal control plants the leaf number, leaf area, number of shoots/plants, and shoot length were significantly lower than in the AMF, P and AMF+P treatments. Root colonization ranged from 81 to 93 % and was not affected by P application. The data confirmed the response of several growth variables of micropropagated ginger to mycorrhizal colonization and P addition.

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