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Florianópolis, Brazil

Barbosa P.B.C.,Federal University of Sergipe | Matos F.S.,Federal University of Sergipe | Cericato G.O.,Meridional Faculty | Rosario H.D.,FUNORTE | And 2 more authors.
Bioscience Journal | Year: 2016

The need for greater understanding of subjective standards of beauty is important when combining a successful dental plan with the real needs of patients. This study aimed to perform a systematic review to assess whether dentists are more critical in assessing facial esthetics than laypersons. The cross-sectional studies selected compared dentists and laypersons regarding the perception of facial changes through photographs. The survey was conducted in four databases (PubMed, SciELO, LILACS, and OpenGrey) with no restriction of time or language, and was assessed by two reviewers who were based on the PVO strategy. Then, a manual search through the references of the selected articles was performed in order to find surveys that did not fit in said search strategy. The examiners assessed the risk of bias and quality in individual studies. The process of data synthesis was performed through a descriptive analysis of the selected studies. Three relevant articles were selected from an initial total of 979 articles collected. Most studies found that dentists were more critical than laypersons; however, facial modifications were different. Only one survey manipulated the changes on a computer, while the others worked with changes on the patient. Given the methodological diversity of the studies, it was not possible to establish a parameter to validate the results presented. © 2016, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia. All rights reserved.

Gomes V.,University of Sao Paulo | Passos M.J.A.C.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Rocha A.J.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Santos T.C.A.,University Monte Serrat | And 2 more authors.
Brazilian Journal of Oceanography | Year: 2013

Changes in environmental factors may deeply affect the energy budget of Antarctic organisms as many of them are stenothermal and/or stenohaline ectotherms. In this context, the aim of this study is to contribute to knowledge on variations in the energy demand of the Antarctic amphipod, Gondogeneia antarctica as a function of temperature and salinity. Experiments were held at the Brazilian Antarctic Station "Comandante Ferraz", under controlled conditions. Animals collected at Admiralty Bay were acclimated to temperatures of 0°C; 2.5°C and 5°C and to salinities of 35, 30 and 25. Thirty measurements were made for each of the nine combinations of the three temperatures and three salinities, totalling 270 measurements. Metabolic rates were assessed by oxygen consumption and total nitrogenous ammonia excretion, in sealed respirometers. When acclimated to salinities 30 or 35, metabolic rates at 0°C and 2.5°C were very similar indicating a possible mechanism of metabolic compensation for temperature. At 5.0°C, however, metabolic rates were always higher. Lower salinities enhanced the effects of temperature on metabolism and ammonia excretion rates. The physiological adaptations of individuals of G. antarctica suggest adaptive mechanisms for energy saving, adjusted to an environment with stable conditions of temperature and salinity. Little is known about the joint effects of salinity and temperature and this study is an important contribution to the understanding of the mechanism of polar organisms in their adaptation to both factors.

The search for a beautiful and harmonic face is a goal of a large portion of the population. With this purpose, it is essential for dental professionals, especially orthodontists, to be able to diagnose facial changes and, thus suggest appropriate treatments to the demands of their patients. To make this possible, dentists and lay people need to have similar concepts of beauty. The aim of this study was to determine whether Arnett and Bergman facial measures are consistent with aesthetic perceptions of dentists (orthodontists and general practitioners) and lay people. It was used a sample of 50 subjects, including 26 women and 24 men. A specialist in orthodontics measured five measures among those used by Arnett and Bergman on lateral cephalometric radiographs. According to these measures, each individual was classified based on the number of measures within the norm: very pleasant, pleasant, acceptable, very unpleasant and unpleasant profile. In a second phase, three groups were created (laypeople, general practitioners and orthodontists), with 20 examiners each. By means of an album of photographs of facial profile, they rated the degree of facial pleasantness according to an adapted scale (VAS).The analysis of the proportions observed according to the different degrees of the scale for the different examiners was performed using Pearson chi-square test (p> 0.05).In order to evaluate the proportions by the examiners and the default values by Arnett and Bergman, Fisher's exact test was used (p>0.05).The results showed that based on the classification by Arnett and Bergman, lay people, general practitioners and orthodontists categorized in the same manner: patients with a very pleasant profile in 0%, 1.66% and 5%, respectively; patients with pleasant profile in 3.75%, 16.88% and 18.75% respectively; patients with acceptable profile in 35%, 34.73% and 36.67% respectively; patients with unpleasant profile in 32.5%, 40%, 30.5%, respectively; and finally, patients with a very unpleasant profile in 15.45%, 15.45% and 10.45%, respectively. It was concluded that there is no similarity between the aesthetic perception of the different groups of examiners with the measures proposed by Arnett and Bergman.

Freitas D.A.,FUNORTE | Sousa A.A.,FUNORTE | Jones K.M.,FUNORTE
Rural and remote health | Year: 2014

Global development processes have been associated with the nutritional transition, where undernutrition is replaced by overnutrition. Income transfer policies in Brazil have targeted hunger, but may not address the need for balanced nutrition. Data was collected from government databanks that document the nutritional status of Brazilians applying for social services. This data was analyzed for descriptive statistics. Development and income transfer processes appear to be associated with an increase in overweight children between the years 2008 and 2012. Income transfer programs need to incorporate educational programs that address the need to budget for balanced nutrition.

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