Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura

Araraquara, Brazil

Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura

Araraquara, Brazil

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PubMed | São Paulo State University, Embrapa Acre and Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pest management science | Year: 2016

Insecticide application is the main way to control Diaphorina citri. However, it causes environmental contamination, has a negative impact on beneficial organisms and leads to psyllid resistance. The essential oil of Piper aduncum has low toxicity towards the environment and contains dillapiol, which has proven to be effective against several crop pests. Here, we studied its efficacy against nymphs and adults of D. citri under laboratory conditions. Oils with three concentrations of dillapiol (69.3, 79.9 and 85.4%) at 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0% dilutions plus 0.025% adjuvant were tested.All treatments caused 90-100% mortality in nymphs. Topical treatments with oil containing 79.9 and 85.4% dillapiol at 0.75% and 1% dilutions were effective (mortality 80%) in adults. However, the essential oil showed no residual activity against adults (mortality 30%).Dillapiol-rich oil is a promising compound for D. citri control. 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.


Lopes S.A.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | Frare G.F.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | Camargo L.E.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Wulff N.A.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | And 4 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

Two surveys (2005/2006 and 2009) were conducted in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, to investigate the incidence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' and 'Ca. L. americanus', two liberibacters associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease and both transmitted by Diaphorina citri, in orange jasmine (Murraya exotica), a widespread ornamental tree in cities and villages. The graft-transmissibility of the two species, and their DNA relatedness to citrus-associated liberibacters, were also investigated. Quantitative PCR was applied to PCR-positive orange jasmine and HLB-positive citrus growing in backyards and orchards to assess their inoculum source potentials. Liberibacters were detected in 91 of 786 sampled orange jasmine plants in 10 of 76 sampled locations. PCR-positive trees exhibited yellow shoots and/or dieback symptoms indistinguishable from those on PCR-negative trees. 'Candidatus Liberibacter americanus' was more common in 2005/2006 (96·6%) and 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in 2009 (84·8%). rplJ nucleotide sequences were identical within all populations of either species. Graft transmission succeeded only in homologous host combinations, including 'Ca. L. americanus' (2/10) from/to orange jasmine and 'Ca. L. americanus' (5/18) and 'Ca. L. asiaticus' (5/9) from/to citrus. Symptoms were mild and developed less rapidly in orange jasmine than in citrus, probably as a result of lower liberibacter multiplication rates. Respective titres of 'Ca. L. americanus' and 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in orange jasmine averaged 4·3 and 3·0 log cells g=-1 tissue, compared with 5·5 and 7·3 in citrus. The results indicate that orange jasmine does not favour liberibacter multiplication as much as citrus. However, its importance in HLB epidemics should not be underestimated as it is a preferred host of D. citri and is not under any strict tree-eradication programme or measures for insect control. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Pathology © 2010 BSPP.


Marques J.P.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Amorim L.,University of Sao Paulo | Sposito M.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Marin D.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | Appezzato-da-Gloria B.,University of Sao Paulo
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Postbloom fruit drop (PFD), an important disease caused by Colletotrichum spp., affects citrus yields in Brazil. PFD is characterised by the presence of necrotic lesions on the petals and stigmas of citrus flowers and by the subsequent abscission of young fruit. PFD epidemics have high disease progress rates, which is unusual for a pathogen that produces acervuli and is dispersed by rain. It is possible that other dispersal agents, such as insects and pollen, are involved in the spread of this disease. The objective of this work was to test whether citrus pollen grains can be colonised by Colletotrichum acutatum. Studies using light and electron microscopy showed that the pollen of Citrus sinensis can be infected by C. acutatum. This pathogen can penetrate and colonise citrus pollen grains 24 h after inoculation with the pathogen. The germ tube of conidia either penetrates the pollen sporodermis directly or passes through pollen germ pores. A single hypha can colonise more than one pollen grain. On the surface of the stigma, conidium formation can be observed. This study shows that Citrus sinensis pollen may, in fact, play a role in the spread of C. acutatum in citrus orchards. © 2013 KNPV.


Marques R.N.,University of Sao Paulo | Teixeira D.C.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | Yamamoto P.T.,University of Sao Paulo | Lopes J.R.S.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a severe citrus (Citrus spp.) disease associated with the bacteria genus Candidatus Liberibacter, detected in Brazil in 2004. Another bacterium was found in association with HLB symptoms and characterized as a phytoplasma belonging to the 16SrIX group. The objectives of this study were to identify potential leafhopper vectors of the HLB-associated phytoplasma and their host plants. Leafhoppers were sampled every other week for 12 mo with sticky yellow cards placed at two heights (0.3 and 1.5 m) in the citrus tree canopy and by using a sweep net in the ground vegetation of two sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, groves infected by the HLB-phytoplasma in So Paulo state. Faunistic analyses indicated one Agalliinae (Agallia albidula Uhler) and three Deltocephalinae [Balclutha hebe (Kirkaldy), Planicephalus flavicosta (Stl), and Scaphytopius (Convelinus) marginelineatus (Stl)] species, as the most abundant and frequent leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Visual observations indicated an association of leafhopper species with some weeds and the influence of weed species composition on leafhopper abundance in low-lying vegetation. S. marginelineatus and P. flavicosta were more frequent on Sida rhombifolia L. and Althernantera tenella Colla, respectively, whereas A. albidula was observed more often on Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. and B. hebe only occurred on grasses. DNA samples of field-collected S. marginelineatus were positive by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing tests for the presence of the HLB-phytoplasma group, indicating it as a potential vector. The association of leafhoppers with their hosts may be used in deciding which management strategies to adopt against weeds and diseases in citrus orchards. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.


Bassanezi R.B.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | Montesino L.H.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | Gimenes-Fernandes N.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | Yamamoto P.T.,University of Sao Paulo | And 3 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2013

Huanglongbing (HLB), caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter' spp. and transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (ACP), is an important threat to citrus industries worldwide, causing significant yield loss. The current recommended strategies to manage HLB are to eliminate HLB-symptomatic trees to reduce sources of bacterial inoculum and to apply insecticides to reduce psyllid vector populations. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness and the importance of both strategies applied within young citrus plots (local management), in different frequencies and combinations, on HLB temporal progress. Two factorial field experiments, E1 and E2, were initiated in a new plantation of sweet orange in an HLB epidemic region of Sao Paulo, Brazil, in October 2005 and May 2006, respectively. Local inoculum reduction (tree removal) intervals for E1 were every 4, 8, and 16 weeks and, for E2, every 2, 4, 12, and 26 weeks. Local vector control strategies for E1 were no control, program A (PA), and program B (PB); and, for E2, no control and program C (PC), as follows. Psyllids were controlled with two 56-day-interval soil or drench applications of systemic insecticides concurrently with the rainy season each year and, during the rest of the year, with insecticide sprays every 28 days for PA and every 14 days for PB and PC. Regional HLB management was present for E1 and absent for E2. The beginning of the HLB epidemic was delayed for 10 months in E1 compared with appearance of the first diseased tree in E2 but wasn't affected by different local strategies in either experiment. After 60 (E1) and 53 (E2) months, the HLB incidence and progress rates were not affected by different frequencies of local inoculum reduction in either experiment, and were different only in plots with and without local vector control in E2. In E1, the disease incidence was reduced by 90% and the disease progress rate by 50% in plots both with and without vector control. These reductions were explained by smaller psyllid populations and lower frequency of bacterialiferous psyllids in E1 compared with E2. Annual productivity increased over time in E1, as expected for young plantings, but remained stable or decreased in E2. These results confirm that immigration of bacterialiferous ACP vectors plays a critical role in HLB epidemics and suggest that area-wide inoculum reduction and ACP management strongly affect HLB control. © 2013 The American Phytopathological Society.


PubMed | University of Sao Paulo and Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pest management science | Year: 2016

Chemical control is the method most used for management of Diaphorina citri, the vector of the phloem-limited bacteria associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease. The objectives of this study were to determine the influence of soil-drench applications of neonicotinoids (thiamethoxam and imidacloprid) on the probing behaviour of D. citri on citrus nursery trees, using the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique, and to measure the D. citri settling behaviour after probing on citrus nursery trees that had received these neonicotinoid treatments.The drench applications of neonicotinoids on citrus nursery trees disrupt D. citri probing, mainly for EPG variables related to phloem sap ingestion, with a significant reduction (90%) in the duration of this activity compared with untreated plants in all assessment periods (15, 35 and 90 days after application). Moreover, both insecticides have a repellent effect on D. citri, resulting in significant dispersal of psyllids from treated plants.This study clearly demonstrates the interference of soil-applied neonicotinoids on the feeding and settling behaviour of D. citri on citrus nursery trees, mainly during the phloem ingestion phase. These findings reinforce the recommendation of drench application of neonicotinoids before planting nursery trees as a useful strategy for HLB management. 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.


PubMed | Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA and Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of economic entomology | Year: 2015

The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a major pest of citrus worldwide due to its ability to transmit the bacteria associated with huanglongbing. Vision, behavior, and performance of insect pests can be manipulated by using ultraviolet (UV)-blocking materials. Thus, the aim of our study was to evaluate how UV-blocking plastic films may affect the take-off and host plant finding ability of D. citri. To assess the effect of a UV-deficient environment on take-off, adult psyllids were released from a vial inside a screenhouse covered by a UV-blocking or standard (control) film and the number of insects remaining on each vial under each treatment was counted at different time intervals. Moreover, to assess the ability of D. citri to find citrus plants under a UV-deficient environment, two independent no-choice host plant finding assays with different plant arrangements were conducted. In each treatment, the number of psyllids per plant at different time intervals was counted. Both D. citri take-off and host plant finding ability was clearly disrupted under a UV-deficient environment. The number of psyllids remaining in the vials was significantly higher under UV-blocking than standard film in all periods recorded. Furthermore, psyllids were present in significantly higher number on citrus plants under standard film than under UV-blocking film in all of the periods assessed and experiments conducted. Our results showed that UV-blocking materials could become a valuable strategy for integrated management of D. citri and huanglongbing in citrus grown in enclosed environments.


Martins P.M.M.,São Paulo State University | Lau I.F.,São Paulo State University | Bacci M.,São Paulo State University | Belasque J.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | And 3 more authors.
FEMS Microbiology Letters | Year: 2010

Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xac) is the causal agent of citrus canker, an economically important disease that affects citrus worldwide. To initiate the characterization of essential biological processes of Xac, we constructed integrative plasmids for the ectopic expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled proteins within this bacterium. Here, we show that the disruption of the α-amylase gene (amy), the site of plasmid integration into the bacterial chromosome, does not alter its pathogenesis while abolishing completely the ability of Xac to degrade starch. Furthermore, our GFP expression system was used to characterize ORF XAC3408, a hypothetical protein encoded by Xac that shares significant homology to the FtsZ-stabilizing factor ZapA from Bacillus subtilis (ZapABsu). GFP-XAC3408 expressed in Xac exhibited a septal localization pattern typical of GFP-ZapABsu, which indicates that XAC3408 is the Xac orthologue of the cell division protein ZapA Bsu. The results demonstrate the potential of GFP labeling for protein functional characterizations in Xac, and, in addition, the Xac mutant strain labeled at the septum constitutes a biological model for the exploration of antibacterial compounds able to inhibit cell division in this plant pathogen. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.


Bassanezi R.B.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | Belasque J.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | Montesino L.H.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura
Crop Protection | Year: 2013

Among the recommended measures for citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) management, the systematic elimination of symptomatic trees is the most argued and difficult to be accepted and accomplished by citrus growers. Elimination of recently affected HLB trees represents a short term yield loss and cost increase due to the need of frequent inspections and removal operations. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different frequencies of inoculum reduction applied at individual citrus blocks scale (or local inoculum reduction) on HLB temporal progress. Eight experiments were carried out in new planted and older citrus blocks with 504-1290 trees/plot. In all experiments, inspections to detect symptomatic trees were done in a fortnightly or monthly frequency. The treatments of frequencies of local inoculum reduction varied from fortnightly to 6 months. Annual disease progress rate was estimated by logistic model for each plot. No difference on HLB progress rates among treatments was observed, except in experiments 1 and 3 where less frequent tree removal resulted in higher disease progress rate. This ineffectiveness of local inoculum reduction on the disease progress rate was explained by the higher weight of primary spread on HLB epidemics than the secondary spread within plots associated with small size and narrow shape of treated plots (except for experiments 1 and 3), high dispersal capacity of HLB-insect vector among plots and groves, and strong control of psyllid within the plots (except for experiment 1, with poor insecticide spray program). Also, the high amount of inspections to detect symptomatic trees before the eradication treatment, which reduced the escapes (asymptomatic and non visual detectable diseased trees) contributed for these results. It is important to note that these results were obtained with only small citrus plots (0.8-2.9ha) and they cannot be extended to larger groves and farms amenable to HLB management by the symptomatic tree removal and vector control. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Garcia A.L.,University of Ribeirão Preto | Torres S.C.Z.,University of Ribeirão Preto | Heredia M.,University of Ribeirão Preto | Lopes S.A.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura
Plant Disease | Year: 2012

The xylem-limited bacterium Xylella fastidosa causes the widely disseminated citrus variegated chlorosis disease (CVC). In Brazil, CVC has been known for more than 20 years and affects only sweet orange. Lime and mandarin have remained free of symptoms despite the high inoculum pressure. Knowing the mechanisms underlying this apparent resistance is important to devise new disease control strategies. The reaction of commercial sweet orange ('Caipira', 'Natal', 'Pêra', and 'Valencia'), lime (Mexican and Persian), mandarin ('Cleopatra', 'Cravo', 'Ponkan', and 'Sunki'), and the acid citrus species Rangpur to X. fastidiosa was compared in artificially inoculated seedlings, which were assessed for symptom expression, pathogen isolation, and the amount of apparently occluded xylem vessels in cross-sectioned leaf petioles. Only the sweet orange expressed typical CVC symptoms, varying from 53.8% in Valencia to 63.0% in Caipira. Average percentages of positive isolations (pi) and occluded vessels (ov) were higher in sweet orange (pi = 59.2 to 75.0; ov = 10.7 to 25.8) than mandarin (pi = 2.3 to 16.3; ov = 1.4 to 4.0), lime (pi = 0 to 5.4; ov = 0 to 2.1), or Rangpur (pi = 1,9; ov = 1.1). There were no obvious differences in xylem anatomy among all citrus varieties, suggesting that the mechanisms of resistance to CVC are not related to any physical variation in xylem structure. © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society.

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