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Araraquara, Brazil

Marques J.P.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Amorim L.,University of Sao Paulo | Sposito M.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Marin D.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | Appezzato-da-Gloria B.,University of Sao Paulo
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

Postbloom fruit drop (PFD), an important disease caused by Colletotrichum spp., affects citrus yields in Brazil. PFD is characterised by the presence of necrotic lesions on the petals and stigmas of citrus flowers and by the subsequent abscission of young fruit. PFD epidemics have high disease progress rates, which is unusual for a pathogen that produces acervuli and is dispersed by rain. It is possible that other dispersal agents, such as insects and pollen, are involved in the spread of this disease. The objective of this work was to test whether citrus pollen grains can be colonised by Colletotrichum acutatum. Studies using light and electron microscopy showed that the pollen of Citrus sinensis can be infected by C. acutatum. This pathogen can penetrate and colonise citrus pollen grains 24 h after inoculation with the pathogen. The germ tube of conidia either penetrates the pollen sporodermis directly or passes through pollen germ pores. A single hypha can colonise more than one pollen grain. On the surface of the stigma, conidium formation can be observed. This study shows that Citrus sinensis pollen may, in fact, play a role in the spread of C. acutatum in citrus orchards. © 2013 KNPV. Source

Marques R.N.,University of Sao Paulo | Teixeira D.C.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | Yamamoto P.T.,University of Sao Paulo | Lopes J.R.S.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a severe citrus (Citrus spp.) disease associated with the bacteria genus Candidatus Liberibacter, detected in Brazil in 2004. Another bacterium was found in association with HLB symptoms and characterized as a phytoplasma belonging to the 16SrIX group. The objectives of this study were to identify potential leafhopper vectors of the HLB-associated phytoplasma and their host plants. Leafhoppers were sampled every other week for 12 mo with sticky yellow cards placed at two heights (0.3 and 1.5 m) in the citrus tree canopy and by using a sweep net in the ground vegetation of two sweet orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, groves infected by the HLB-phytoplasma in So Paulo state. Faunistic analyses indicated one Agalliinae (Agallia albidula Uhler) and three Deltocephalinae [Balclutha hebe (Kirkaldy), Planicephalus flavicosta (Stl), and Scaphytopius (Convelinus) marginelineatus (Stl)] species, as the most abundant and frequent leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Visual observations indicated an association of leafhopper species with some weeds and the influence of weed species composition on leafhopper abundance in low-lying vegetation. S. marginelineatus and P. flavicosta were more frequent on Sida rhombifolia L. and Althernantera tenella Colla, respectively, whereas A. albidula was observed more often on Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. and B. hebe only occurred on grasses. DNA samples of field-collected S. marginelineatus were positive by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing tests for the presence of the HLB-phytoplasma group, indicating it as a potential vector. The association of leafhoppers with their hosts may be used in deciding which management strategies to adopt against weeds and diseases in citrus orchards. © 2012 Entomological Society of America. Source

Fogaca A.C.,University of Sao Paulo | Zaini P.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Wulff N.A.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | Da Silva P.I.P.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
FEMS Microbiology Letters | Year: 2010

In the xylem vessels of susceptible hosts, such as citrus trees, Xylella fastidiosa forms biofilm-like colonies that can block water transport, which appears to correlate to disease symptoms. Besides aiding host colonization, bacterial biofilms play an important role in resistance against antimicrobial agents, for instance antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Here, we show that gomesin, a potent AMP from a tarantula spider, modulates X. fastidiosa gene expression profile upon 60 min of treatment with a sublethal concentration. DNA microarray hybridizations revealed that among the upregulated coding sequences, some are related to biofilm production. In addition, we show that the biofilm formed by gomesin-treated bacteria is thicker than that formed by nontreated cells or cells exposed to streptomycin. We have also observed that the treatment of X. fastidiosa with a sublethal concentration of gomesin before inoculation in tobacco plants correlates with a reduction in foliar symptoms, an effect possibly due to the trapping of bacterial cells to fewer xylem vessels, given the enhancement in biofilm production. These results warrant further investigation of how X. fastidiosa would respond to the AMPs produced by citrus endophytes and by the insect vector, leading to a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these molecules on bacterial virulence. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Source

Lopes S.A.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | Frare G.F.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | Camargo L.E.A.,University of Sao Paulo | Wulff N.A.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | And 4 more authors.
Plant Pathology | Year: 2010

Two surveys (2005/2006 and 2009) were conducted in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, to investigate the incidence of 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' and 'Ca. L. americanus', two liberibacters associated with citrus huanglongbing (HLB) disease and both transmitted by Diaphorina citri, in orange jasmine (Murraya exotica), a widespread ornamental tree in cities and villages. The graft-transmissibility of the two species, and their DNA relatedness to citrus-associated liberibacters, were also investigated. Quantitative PCR was applied to PCR-positive orange jasmine and HLB-positive citrus growing in backyards and orchards to assess their inoculum source potentials. Liberibacters were detected in 91 of 786 sampled orange jasmine plants in 10 of 76 sampled locations. PCR-positive trees exhibited yellow shoots and/or dieback symptoms indistinguishable from those on PCR-negative trees. 'Candidatus Liberibacter americanus' was more common in 2005/2006 (96·6%) and 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in 2009 (84·8%). rplJ nucleotide sequences were identical within all populations of either species. Graft transmission succeeded only in homologous host combinations, including 'Ca. L. americanus' (2/10) from/to orange jasmine and 'Ca. L. americanus' (5/18) and 'Ca. L. asiaticus' (5/9) from/to citrus. Symptoms were mild and developed less rapidly in orange jasmine than in citrus, probably as a result of lower liberibacter multiplication rates. Respective titres of 'Ca. L. americanus' and 'Ca. L. asiaticus' in orange jasmine averaged 4·3 and 3·0 log cells g=-1 tissue, compared with 5·5 and 7·3 in citrus. The results indicate that orange jasmine does not favour liberibacter multiplication as much as citrus. However, its importance in HLB epidemics should not be underestimated as it is a preferred host of D. citri and is not under any strict tree-eradication programme or measures for insect control. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Pathology © 2010 BSPP. Source

Volpe H.X.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | Garcia R.B.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | Magnani R.F.,Fundo de Defesa da Citricultura | Magnani R.F.,Federal University of Sao Carlos | And 2 more authors.
Pest Management Science | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: Insecticide application is the main way to control Diaphorina citri. However, it causes environmental contamination, has a negative impact on beneficial organisms and leads to psyllid resistance. The essential oil of Piper aduncum has low toxicity towards the environment and contains dillapiol, which has proven to be effective against several crop pests. Here, we studied its efficacy against nymphs and adults of D. citri under laboratory conditions. Oils with three concentrations of dillapiol (69.3, 79.9 and 85.4%) at 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0% dilutions plus 0.025% adjuvant were tested. RESULTS: All treatments caused 90-100% mortality in nymphs. Topical treatments with oil containing 79.9 and 85.4% dillapiol at 0.75% and 1% dilutions were effective (mortality ≥80%) in adults. However, the essential oil showed no residual activity against adults (mortality ≤30%). CONCLUSIONS: Dillapiol-rich oil is a promising compound for D. citri control. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

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