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Mayor P.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Mayor P.,University of Amazon | El Bizri H.,University of Amazon | El Bizri H.,Institute Desenvolvimento Sustentavel Mamiraua | And 3 more authors.
Conservation Biology | Year: 2017

Wildlife subsistence hunting is a major source of protein for tropical rural populations and a prominent conservation issue. The intrinsic rate of natural increase. (rmax) of populations is a key reproductive parameter in the most used assessments of hunting sustainability. However, researchers face severe difficulties in obtaining reproductive data in the wild, so these assessments often rely on classic reproductive rates calculated mostly from studies of captive animals conducted 30 years ago. The result is a flaw in almost 50% of studies, which hampers management decision making. We conducted a 15-year study in the Amazon in which we used reproductive data from the genitalia of 950 hunted female mammals. Genitalia were collected by local hunters. We examined tissue from these samples to estimate birthrates for wild populations of the 10 most hunted mammals. We compared our estimates with classic measures and considered the utility of the use of rmax in sustainability assessments. For woolly monkey (Lagothrix poeppigii) and tapir (Tapirus terrestris), wild birthrates were similar to those from captive populations, whereas birthrates for other ungulates and lowland-paca (Cuniculus paca) were significantly lower than previous estimates. Conversely, for capuchin monkeys (Sapajus macrocephalus), agoutis (Dasyprocta sp.), and coatis (Nasua nasua), our calculated reproductive rates greatly exceeded often-used values. Researchers could keep applying classic measures compatible with our estimates, but for other species previous estimates of rmax may not be appropriate. We suggest that data from local studies be used to set hunting quotas. Our maximum rates of population growth in the wild correlated with body weight, which suggests that our method is consistent and reliable. Integration of this method into community-based wildlife management and the training of local hunters to record pregnancies in hunted animals could efficiently generate useful information of life histories of wild species and thus improve management of natural resources. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology

Brown J.L.,Duke University | Perez-Pena P.E.,Fundamazonia | Twomey E.,East Carolina University
Zootaxa | Year: 2010

We describe two new species of Ranitomeya (family Dendrobatidae), R. yavaricola sp. nov. and R. cyanovittata sp. nov., from Peru. Ranitomeya yavaricola sp. nov. is morphologically similar to certain other species of Ranitomeya (in particular R. flavovittata), but the new species can be easily distinguished from all other species of Ranitomeya based on its unique limb coloration: solid bronze without black markings. Despite having searched in numerous localities throughout this region, we have found the new species at only a single locality near the confluence of the Yavarí and Yavari-Mirin rivers. Based on acoustic and molecular data, the new species is a member of the vanzolinii group, and is sister to the second new species, R. cyanovittata. Ranitomeya cyanovittata sp. nov. is only known from a single locality in the Sierra del Divisor in Amazonian Peru. This species can be easily distinguished from the other species of Ranitomeya by a unique coloration pattern that consists of just two colors: black background with blue lines or reticulations. Copyright © 2010 Magnolia Press.

Mayor P.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Perez-Pena P.,Yavari Conservacion y Uso Sostenible YAVACUS | Bowler M.,San Diego Zoo Global Institute for Conservation Research | Puertas P.E.,FundAmazonia | And 4 more authors.
Ecology and Society | Year: 2015

We examined the effects of selective timber logging carried out by local indigenous people in remote areas within indigenous territories on the mammal populations of the Yavari-Mirin River basin on the Peru-Brazil border. Recent findings show that habitat change in the study area is minimal, and any effect of logging activities on large mammal populations is highly likely to be the result of hunting associated with logging operations. We used hunting registers to estimate the monthly and yearly biomass extracted during timber operations and to calculate the catch per unit effort (CPUE) in subsistence hunting in the community of Esperanza 2 to 5 years before logging activities started and 4 to 7 years after logging began. We also used line transects and the distance method to estimate animal densities before and after logging. We found that 1389 hunted animals and 27,459 kg of mammal biomass were extracted per year from logging concessions. CPUE for ungulates declined; however, it increased for other mammal orders, such as rodents and primates, indicating a shift to alternative prey items. Although collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) and tapirs (Tapirus terrestris) may also have declined in numbers, this shift may have been caused by a possibly natural population crash in white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) that coincided with the logging periods. We found no evidence that populations of primates were reduced by the logging activities. Because primates are sensitive to hunting, and their populations were of principal concern as logging commenced, this indicates that these forests remain of high conservation value. The unusual socioeconomic situation of these remote territories may mean that they are compatible with wildlife conservation in the Yavari-Mirin basin. © 2015 by the author(s). Published here under license by the Resilience Alliance.

PubMed | University of Amazon, FUNDAMAZONIA, San Diego Zoo Global Institute for Conservation Research and Autonomous University of Barcelona
Type: | Journal: Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology | Year: 2016

Wildlife subsistence hunting is a major source of protein for tropical rural populations and a prominent conservation issue. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r

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