Darwin, Chile
Darwin, Chile

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Smith-Ramirez C.,University of Chile | Smith-Ramirez C.,Austral University of Chile | Ramos-Jiliberto R.,University of Chile | Ramos-Jiliberto R.,Institute Filosofia Y Ciencias Of La Complejidad Ifcc | And 6 more authors.
Oecologia | Year: 2014

Long-term studies of plant-pollinator interactions are almost nonexistent in the scientific literature. The objective of the present study was to determine changes and trends in the pollinator assemblage of ulmo (Eucryphia cordifolia; Cunoniaceae), a canopy-emergent tree found in Chilean temperate rainforests. We assessed the temporal variability of the pollinator assemblage and identified possible modulators of the observed temporal shifts. We sampled insect visitors to the flowers of 16 individual trees of E. cordifolia during 10 consecutive flowering seasons (2000-2009), recording a total of 137 pollinator species with a mean number of species per year of 44. Only three pollinator species (2.2 %) were recorded every year. Two bee species accounted for 50 % of all insect visits to flowers. One bee species, Bombus dahlbomii (native), was dominant in one season, whereas Apis mellifera (exotic) dominated during the next season. These interannual shifts in population abundances presented first-order dynamics that were characterized by oscillations with a period of 2 years. Changes in the abundances of the dominant pollinators, as well as differences in temperature and precipitation during insect emergence and flowering, led to a nested temporal structure of pollinator composition. Furthermore, the abundances of less common pollinators were sensitive to the abundance of the dominant bee species and to monthly maximum temperatures and the average precipitation during spring and summer. Based on our results and those from other studies, we predict a decline in the numbers of Bombus dahlbomii and nondominant native pollinators in response to new exotic arrivals. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Diaz I.A.,Austral University of Chile | Correa C.,University of Chile | Pena-Foxon M.E.,Fundacion Senda Darwin | Mendez M.A.,University of Chile | Charrier A.,Austral University of Chile
Bosque | Year: 2010

We record for the first time arboreal habits in amphibians from the temperate rainforests of southern South America. In April 2006 we collected an individual of Eupsophus calcaratus at 16 m height, in a large Eucryphia cordifolia tree of old-growth forest of Chiloé Island, southern Chile. This species was considered until now as a terrestrial species, and the similarities between forest ground and epiphytic layer may allow this species inhabit the canopy. However, the level of association among these frogs and the forest canopy is unknown. The canopy of southern South America forests remains barely known, and as other forest canopies, may support high species diversity.

Celis-Diez J.L.,Fundacion Senda Darwin | Celis-Diez J.L.,Institute Ecologia y Biodiversidad | Celis-Diez J.L.,University of Santiago de Chile | Hetz J.,Fundacion Senda Darwin | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Mammalogy | Year: 2012

Populations of the endemic and threatened marsupial Dromiciops gliroides were studied in logged and unlogged forest patches and shrublands in a rural area of northern Chiloé Island (42°S), Chile. We expected to find differences in abundance, with higher densities in unlogged, old-growth remnant forests. Individuals were livetrapped over 4 years (2005 - 2009) at the peak of their breeding (November) and nonbreeding (February) seasons. We estimated population densities using capture - mark - recapture procedures. Home range, diet (through fecal content), and health status (ectoparasite loads) were assessed for captured individuals. We estimated the length of the breeding season by the levels of reproductive hormones, whereas winter torpor was documented using artificial nest boxes. Population densities varied seasonally in accordance with breeding, with higher densities recorded during summer, and were similar in old-growth and in logged forests, but were considerable higher in forests than in shrublands. D. gliroides reproduced well in both unlogged and logged forests. Social torpor was documented for the 1st time and was fairly frequent (64%), especially among juveniles. Home ranges were 2 times larger for males than for females. We confirmed the omnivorous diet of D. gliroides, with predominant consumption of arthropods, and a higher consumption of fleshy fruits during summer. Habitat and animal age had significant effects on ectoparasite prevalence, with higher incidences among juveniles in logged forests. We conclude that D. gliroides is not a rare species in remnant forests in the rural landscape of Chiloé Island. This result is crucial for the assessment of its conservation status and offers clues for designing better conservation strategies for this living fossil in anthropogenic landscapes. © 2012 American Society of Mammalogists.

The presence of Alsodespehuenche in Chile was reported in the year 2010, based on the observation of larvae near the Chilean-Argentinean border, about 3 km east of the northeast corner of the Laguna del Maule (Región del Maule, Chile). The taxonomic history of this species dates from 1965, with the re-discovery of Telmatobius montanus (which was later transferred to the genus Alsodes) in two localities, near the Laguna del Maule and Valle Pehuenche, located in Chile and Argentina, respectively. The literature review shows that the locality of Argentina described in 1965 became the type locality of A. pehuenche, while the Chilean locality was ignored; thus this latter locality continues to be a valid record for A. montanus. In this study we provide morphological, chromosomal and molecular evidence, which confirms the presence of A. pehuenche in Chile, in two new localities located near the site recorded in 2010 and the Laguna del Maule. We also include some field observations, which are discussed in the context of the information available for this species.

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