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Rodriguez-Pazos L.,Complejo Hospitalario Universitario | Ginarte M.,Complejo Hospitalario Universitario | Vega A.,Fundacion Publica Galega de Medicina Xenomica SERGAS | Toribio J.,Complejo Hospitalario Universitario
Actas Dermo-Sifiliograficas

The term autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) refers to a group of rare disorders of keratinization classified as nonsyndromic forms of ichthyosis. This group was traditionally divided into lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE) but today it also includes harlequin ichthyosis, self-healing collodion baby, acral self-healing collodion baby, and bathing suit ichthyosis. The combined prevalence of LI and CIE has been estimated at 1 case per 138 000 to 300 000 population. In some countries or regions, such as Norway and the coast of Galicia, the prevalence may be higher due to founder effects. ARCI is genetically highly heterogeneous and has been associated with 6 genes to date: TGM1, ALOXE3, ALOX12B, NIPAL4, CYP4F22, and ABCA12. In this article, we review the current knowledge on ARCI, with a focus on clinical, histological, ultrastructural, genetic, molecular, and treatment-related aspects. © 2012 Elsevier Espana, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved. Source

Beer B.,Innsbruck Medical University | Erb R.,Innsbruck Medical University | Pitterl F.,Innsbruck Medical University | Niederstatter H.,Innsbruck Medical University | And 5 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

Genetic polymorphisms can significantly affect the enzyme activity of the drug metabolizing enzyme Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6; OMIM 124030). Accordingly, CYP2D6 genotyping is considered as a valid approach to predict the individual CYP2D6 metabolizing status. We introduce ion-pair reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ICEMS) as method for the characterization of single base variants, small deletions, and insertions in the CYP2D6 gene. A two-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed for the simultaneous amplification of nine polymorphic regions within the CYP2D6 gene. Cleanup, separation, and denaturation of PCR amplicons were achieved by high-performance liquid chromatography. High-performance molecular mass measurements provided nucleotide composition profiles that principally enable the resolution of 37 reported CYP2D6 alleles. The developed assay was applied to the genotyping of 93 unrelated Austrian individuals. For validation, a selected number of samples and polymorphic sites were retyped by alternative genotyping technologies. The PCR-ICEMS assay turned out to be an accurate, robust, and cost-effective CYP2D6 genotyping strategy. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Fachal L.,Fundacion Publica Galega de Medicina Xenomica SERGAS
PloS one

Mutations in the TGM1 gene encoding transglutaminase 1 are a major cause of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis. In the Galician (NW Spain) population, three mutations, c.2278C>T, c.1223_1227delACAC and c.984+1G>A, were observed at high frequency, representing ~46%, ~21% and ~13% of all TGM1 gene mutations, respectively. Moreover, these mutations were reported only once outside of Galicia, pointing to the existence of historical episodes of local severe genetic drift in this region. In order to determine whether these mutations were inherited from a common ancestor in the Galician population, and to estimate the number of generations since their initial appearance, we carried out a haplotype-based analysis by way of genotyping 21 SNPs within and flanking the TGM1 gene and 10 flanking polymorphic microsatellite markers spanning a region of 12 Mb. Two linkage disequilibrium based methods were used to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA), while a Bayesian-based procedure was used to estimate the age of the two mutations. Haplotype reconstruction from unphased genotypes of all members of the affected pedigrees indicated that all carriers for each of the two mutations harbored the same haplotypes, indicating common ancestry. In good agreement with the documentation record and the census, both mutations arose between 2,800-2,900 years ago (y.a.), but their TMRCA was in the range 600-1,290 y.a., pointing to the existence of historical bottlenecks in the region followed by population growth. This demographic scenario finds further support on a Bayesian Coalescent Analysis based on TGM1 haplotypes that allowed estimating the occurrence of a dramatic reduction of effective population size around 900-4,500 y.a. (95% highest posterior density) followed by exponential growth. Source

Pazos E.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Perez M.,Fundacion Publica Galega de Medicina Xenomica SERGAS | Gutierrez-De-Teran H.,Fundacion Publica Galega de Medicina Xenomica SERGAS | Orzaez M.,Research Center Principe Felipe | And 3 more authors.
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry

We report the design and development of a fluorescent sensor specifically designed to target cyclin A, a protein that plays a key role in the regulation of the cell cycle. Computational studies provide a molecular picture that explains the observed emission increase, suggesting that the 4-DMAP fluorophore in the peptide is protected from the bulk solvent when inserted into the hydrophobic binding groove of cyclin A. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source

Sobrido M.-J.,Fundacion Publica Galega de Medicina Xenomica SERGAS | Sobrido M.-J.,Institute of Health Carlos III | Cacheiro P.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Carracedo A.,Fundacion Publica Galega de Medicina Xenomica SERGAS | And 3 more authors.
Human Mutation

The importance for research and clinical utility of mutation databases, as well as the issues and difficulties entailed in their construction, is discussed within the Human Variome Project. While general principles and standards can apply to most human diseases, some specific questions arise when dealing with the nature of genetic neurological disorders. So far, publically accessible mutation databases exist for only about half of the genes causing neurogenetic disorders; and a considerable work is clearly still needed to optimize their content. The current landscape, main challenges, some potential solutions, and future perspectives on genetic databases for disorders of the nervous system are reviewed in this special issue of Human Mutation on neurogenetics. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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