Fundacion PROINPA

La Paz, Bolivia

Fundacion PROINPA

La Paz, Bolivia

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Vargas A.,Brigham Young University | Elzinga D.B.,Brigham Young University | Rojas-Beltran J.A.,Fundacion PROINPA | Bonifacio A.,Fundacion PROINPA | And 4 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2011

Cañahua (Chenopodium pallidicaule Aellen) is a poorly studied, annual subsistence crop of the high Andes of South America. Its nutritional value (high in protein and mineral content) and ability to thrive in harsh climates make it an important regional food crop throughout the Andean region. The objectives of this study were to develop genetic markers and to quantify genetic diversity within cañahua. A set of 43 wild and cultivated cañahua genotypes and two related species (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. and Chenopodium petiolare Kunth) were evaluated for polymorphism using 192 microsatellite markers derived from random genomic cañahua sequences produced by 454 pyrosequencing of cañahua genomic DNA. Another 424 microsatellite markers from C. quinoa were also evaluated for cross-species amplification and polymorphism in cañahua. A total of 34 polymorphic microsatellite marker loci were identified which detected a total of 154 alleles with an average of 4. 5 alleles per marker locus and an average heterozygosity value of 0. 49. A cluster analysis, based on Nei genetic distance, clearly separated from wild cañahua genotypes from the cultivated genotypes. Within the cultivated genotypes, subclades were partitioned by AMOVA analysis into six model-based clusters, including a subclade consisting sole of erect morphotypes. The isolation by distance test displayed no significant correlation between geographic collection origin and genotypic data, suggesting that cañahua populations have moved extensively, presumably via ancient food exchange strategies among native peoples of the Andean region. The molecular markers reported here are a significant resource for ongoing efforts to characterize the extensive Bolivian and Peruvian cañahua germplasm banks, including the development of core germplasm collections needed to support emerging breeding programs. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Peterson A.,Washington State University | Jacobsen S.-E.,Copenhagen University | Bonifacio A.,Fundacion PROINPA | Murphy K.,Washington State University
Sustainability (Switzerland) | Year: 2015

As sustainable production of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) increases and its geographic range of cultivation expands, quinoa breeding will allow use of the crop's wide genetic diversity for cultivar improvement and for adaptation to new agroecosystems and climactic regimes. Such breeding work will require a reliable technique for crossing quinoa plants using hand emasculation. The technique described herein focuses on the isolation of small flower clusters produced low on the plant, emasculation of male flowers, and subsequent pairing of the emasculated female parent with a male parent undergoing anthesis. Various traits, such as plant color, seed color, and axil pigmentation can be used to confirm the successful production of F1 plants. The manual hybridization technology provides a significant advantage over pairing plants and relying on chance cross-pollination, and has been successfully used to generate crosses between quinoa cultivars, as well as interspecific crosses between quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri. This technology will help pave the way for the introduction and sustainable expansion of quinoa on a global scale across a wide range of target environments and diverse farming systems. © 2015 by the authors.


Ortuno N.,Fundacion PROINPA | Castillo J.A.,Fundacion PROINPA | Miranda C.,Fundacion PROINPA | Claros M.,Fundacion PROINPA | Soto X.,Fundacion PROINPA
Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems | Year: 2016

Agriculture in the Altiplano and Andean Mountains is experiencing threats to sustainability mainly due to intensive cultivation of quinoa driven by international markets. This recent export-oriented production system is causing the degradation of soils and reducing productivity, therefore, agro-technological innovations are necessary to sustain cropping systems while maintaining organic quality (mostly quinoa). In this work, we searched for native Trichoderma species associated with plants from the Andean highlands to obtain an environmentally friendly and organic alternative to chemical fertilizers. We obtained different Trichoderma isolates from quinoa, potato and maize roots and soil, which were identified as Trichoderma harzianum, as well as other species. Twelve of the isolates were cultured in pairs to stimulate the production and secretion of compounds of diverse chemical nature that we called collectively ‘secondary metabolites’ (SMs). Crude extracts of SMs were used to inoculate selected crops to determine their plant growth promoting potential compared with two commercially available controls, chemical fertilizer and a bio-fertilizer. Results showed that SMs significantly promoted lettuce and radish growth and increased quinoa grain yield. Indole acetic acid was detected in all SM extracts that promoted plant growth, suggesting that this plant regulator might be responsible for the plant growth promoting activity. In conclusion, the Trichoderma-derived SMs approach appears to be a promising, simple and accessible technology for small-scale farmers in order to insure the sustainability, affordability and accessibility of food production in the Andes. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016


Fatouros N.E.,Wageningen University | Pineda A.,Wageningen University | Huigens M.E.,Wageningen University | Broekgaarden C.,Wageningen University | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Evolutionary theory of plant defences against herbivores predicts a trade-off between direct (anti-herbivore traits) and indirect defences (attraction of carnivores) when carnivore fitness is reduced. Such a trade-off is expected in plant species that kill herbivore eggs by exhibiting a hypersensitive response (HR)-like necrosis, which should then negatively affect carnivores. We used the black mustard (Brassica nigra) to investigate how this potentially lethal direct trait affects preferences and/or performances of specialist cabbage white butterflies (Pieris spp.), and their natural enemies, tiny egg parasitoid wasps (Trichogramma spp.). Both within and between black mustard populations, we observed variation in the expression of Pieris egg-induced HR. Butterfly eggs on plants with HR-like necrosis suffered lower hatching rates and higher parasitism than eggs that did not induce the trait. In addition, Trichogramma wasps were attracted to volatiles of egg-induced plants that also expressed HR, and this attraction depended on the Trichogramma strain used. Consequently, HR did not have a negative effect on egg parasitoid survival. We conclude that even within a system where plants deploy lethal direct defences, such defences may still act with indirect defences in a synergistic manner to reduce herbivore pressure. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Cadima X.,Fundacion PROINPA | Cadima X.,Wageningen University | Van Zonneveld M.,Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center | Van Zonneveld M.,Ghent University | And 7 more authors.
Journal for Nature Conservation | Year: 2014

Crop wild relatives possess important traits, therefore ex situ and in situ conservation efforts are essential to maintain sufficient options for crop improvement. Bolivia is a centre of wild relative diversity for several crops, among them potato, which is an important staple worldwide and the principal food crop in this country. Despite their relevance for plant breeding, limited knowledge exists about their in situ conservation status. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and distribution modelling with the software Maxent to better understand geographic patterns of endemic wild potato diversity in Bolivia. In combination with threat layers, we assessed the conservation status of all endemic species, 21 in total. We prioritised areas for in situ conservation by using complementary reserve selection and excluded 25% of the most-threatened collection sites because costs to implement conservation measures at those locations may be too high compared to other areas. Some 70% (15 of 21 species) has a preliminary vulnerable status or worse according to IUCN red list distribution criteria. Our results show that four of these species would require special conservation attention because they were only observed in <15 locations and are highly threatened by human accessibility, fires and livestock pressure. Although highest species richness occurs in south-central Bolivia, in the departments Santa Cruz and Chuquisaca, the first priority area for in situ conservation according to our reserve selection exercise is central Bolivia, Cochabamba; this area is less threatened than the potato wild relatives' hotspot in south-central Bolivia. Only seven of the 21 species were observed in protected areas. To improve coverage of potato wild relatives' distribution by protected areas, we recommend starting inventories in parks and reserves with high modelled diversity. Finally, to improve ex situ conservation, we targeted areas for germplasm collection of species with <5 accessions conserved in genebanks. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.


Ortiz O.,International Potato Center | Orrego R.,International Potato Center | Pradel W.,International Potato Center | Gildemacher P.,International Potato Center | And 12 more authors.
Agricultural Systems | Year: 2013

In the last 50. years, theoretical and practical approaches to promoting agricultural innovations have been evolving. Initial innovation diffusion theories led to a linear, top-down approach of technology transfer. However, changes occurred in the 1970s and 1980s, such as the economic structural adjustment which caused a dramatic decrease in governmental agricultural research and extension services in several developing countries. Simultaneously a number of new stakeholders (NGOs, private companies, farmer organizations, local governments, etc.) started to contribute to agricultural innovations more actively in the 1990s and 2000s. As the changes occurred, scholars began proposing new theories, such as the innovation systems approach, to explain how multiple stakeholders interact, exchange information, generate knowledge and develop innovations for solving problems. The paper describes the results of a rapid appraisal of potato innovation systems in Bolivia, Ethiopia, Peru and Uganda. The method was useful for identifying components and limitations in the system at pilot sites. Results indicate that the systems had similar types of components, namely national and local government organizations, NGOs, private companies, farmer organizations and media; another common feature was the limited interaction among organizational components, which reduced farmer access to information, technologies, organizations, markets and services. However, the role of organizational components was different across countries. Farmer organizations played a limited role at the pilot sites in these countries, except in Bolivia. The role of national governments was also limited in Bolivia and Peru, but played a major role in Ethiopia and Uganda at the moment of the study. Local governments were starting to play an important role in the four sites. NGOs played an active role in most countries, and the private companies in charge of input supply were more active in Bolivia and Peru. Media (radio) were present, but they were not contributing significantly to disseminating information for innovation. The International Potato Center (CIP) was present in all the systems, playing a role of innovation brokerage. Results indicate that different types of intervention would be needed for each country to strengthen the roles that components were already playing, but should look for improving interactions among components. In Ethiopia, strengthening innovation capacity of potato-related government organizations would be desirable to start the process, but in Bolivia, Peru and Uganda, enhancing interactions and coordination among government organizations, NGOs, private companies and farmer organizations would be needed, for example, to improve farmer access to quality planting material and markets. The role of farmer organizations and the private companies in charge of input supply need to be strengthened in the potato innovation systems in all places. The rapid appraisal of potato innovation systems has shown to be a method with potential to start understanding the complexity of the innovation systems and identify potential entry points for interventions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Kolano B.,University of Silesia | Gardunia B.W.,Brigham Young University | Michalska M.,University of Silesia | Bonifacio A.,Fundacion PROINPA | And 6 more authors.
Genome | Year: 2011

The chromosomal organization of two novel repetitive DNA sequences isolated from the Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genome was analyzed across the genomes of selected Chenopodium species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with the repetitive DNA clone 18-24J in the closely related allotetraploids C. quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. (2n = 4x = 36) evidenced hybridization signals that were mainly present on 18 chromosomes; however, in the allohexaploid Chenopodium album L. (2n = 6x = 54), cross-hybridization was observed on all of the chromosomes. In situ hybridization with rRNA gene probes indicated that during the evolution of polyploidy, the chenopods lost some of their rDNA loci. Reprobing with rDNA indicated that in the subgenome labeled with 18-24J, one 35S rRNA locus and at least half of the 5S rDNA loci were present. A second analyzed sequence, 12-13P, localized exclusively in pericentromeric regions of each chromosome of C. quinoa and related species. The intensity of the FISH signals differed considerably among chromosomes. The pattern observed on C. quinoa chromosomes after FISH with 12-13P was very similar to GISH results, suggesting that the 12-13P sequence constitutes a major part of the repetitive DNA of C. quinoa. © 2011 Published by NRC Research Press.


Cadima Fuentes X.,Fundacion PROINPA | Cadima Fuentes X.,Wageningen University | van Treuren R.,Wageningen University | Hoekstra R.,Wageningen University | And 2 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2016

Potato wild relatives are important sources of novel variation for the genetic improvement of the cultivated potato. Consequently, many natural populations have been sampled and were deposited as accessions in gene banks around the world. Here we investigate to what extent the genetic variation of Bolivian wild potato species is maintained under gene bank conditions and how this diversity relates to that of current in situ populations. For this purpose, materials from seven potato species were screened for microsatellite variation. Genetic changes between different generations of ex situ germplasm were not observed for Solanum leptophyes and S. megistacrolobum, but were detected for S. neocardenasii and S. okadae, while each of the species S. acaule, S. avilesii and S. berthaultii showed stability in some cases and genetic change in others. The observed changes were ascribed to genetic drift and contamination resulting from human error during regeneration. Re-collected populations of six of the studied species showed highly significant genetic differences with the ex situ accessions that, apart from changes during ex situ maintenance, are most likely to be attributed to sampling effects during collecting and in situ genetic changes over time. The implications of the results for ex situ and in situ conservation strategies of wild potato species are discussed. © 2016 The Author(s)


PubMed | Fundacion PROINPA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Canadian journal of microbiology | Year: 2016

Bacterial wilt is a devastating plant disease caused by the bacterial pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum species complex and affects different crops. Bacterial wilt infecting potato is also known as brown rot (BR) and is responsible for significant economic losses in potato production, especially in developing countries. In Bolivia, BR affects up to 75% of the potato crop in areas with high incidence and 100% of stored potatoes. The disease has disseminated since its introduction to the country in the mid-1980s mostly through contaminated seed tubers. To avoid this, local farmers multiply seed tubers in highlands because the strain infecting potatoes cannot survive near-freezing temperatures that are typical in the high mountains. Past disease surveys have shown an increase in seed tubers with latent infection in areas at altitudes lower than 3000 m a.s.l. Since global warming is increasing in the Andes Mountains, in this work, we explored the incidence of BR in areas at altitudes above 3000 m a.s.l. Results showed BR presence in the majority of these areas, suggesting a correlation between the increase in disease incidence and the increase in temperature and the number of irregular weather events resulting from climate change. However, it cannot be excluded that the increasing availability of latently infected seed tubers has boosted the spread of BR.


PubMed | Wageningen University, University of Florida and Fundacion PROINPA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings. Biological sciences | Year: 2014

Evolutionary theory of plant defences against herbivores predicts a trade-off between direct (anti-herbivore traits) and indirect defences (attraction of carnivores) when carnivore fitness is reduced. Such a trade-off is expected in plant species that kill herbivore eggs by exhibiting a hypersensitive response (HR)-like necrosis, which should then negatively affect carnivores. We used the black mustard (Brassica nigra) to investigate how this potentially lethal direct trait affects preferences and/or performances of specialist cabbage white butterflies (Pieris spp.), and their natural enemies, tiny egg parasitoid wasps (Trichogramma spp.). Both within and between black mustard populations, we observed variation in the expression of Pieris egg-induced HR. Butterfly eggs on plants with HR-like necrosis suffered lower hatching rates and higher parasitism than eggs that did not induce the trait. In addition, Trichogramma wasps were attracted to volatiles of egg-induced plants that also expressed HR, and this attraction depended on the Trichogramma strain used. Consequently, HR did not have a negative effect on egg parasitoid survival. We conclude that even within a system where plants deploy lethal direct defences, such defences may still act with indirect defences in a synergistic manner to reduce herbivore pressure.

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