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La Paz, Bolivia

Padulosi S.,Bioversity International | Amaya K.,Bioversity International | Jager M.,Bioversity International | Gotor E.,Bioversity International | Rojas W.,Fundacion PROINPA
Sustainability (Switzerland)

The IFAD-NUS project, implemented over the course of a decade in two phases, represents the first UN-supported global effort on neglected and underutilized species (NUS). This initiative, deployed and tested a holistic and innovative value chain framework using multi-stakeholder, participatory, inter-disciplinary, pro-poor gender- and nutrition-sensitive approaches. The project has been linking aspects often dealt with separately by R&D, such as genetic diversity, selection, cultivation, harvest, value addition, marketing, and final use, with the goal to contribute to conservation, better incomes, and improved nutrition and strengthened livelihood resilience. The project contributed to the greater conservation of Andean grains and their associated indigenous knowledge, through promoting wider use of their diversity by value chain actors, adoption of best cultivation practices, development of improved varieties, dissemination of high quality seed, and capacity development. Reduced drudgery in harvest and postharvest operations, and increased food safety were achieved through technological innovations. Development of innovative food products and inclusion of Andean grains in school meal programs is projected to have had a positive nutrition outcome for targeted communities. Increased income was recorded for all value chain actors, along with strengthened networking skills and self-reliance in marketing. The holistic approach taken in this study is advocated as an effective strategy to enhance the use of other neglected and underutilized species for conservation and livelihood benefits. Source

Fatouros N.E.,Wageningen University | Pineda A.,Wageningen University | Huigens M.E.,Wageningen University | Broekgaarden C.,Wageningen University | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences

Evolutionary theory of plant defences against herbivores predicts a trade-off between direct (anti-herbivore traits) and indirect defences (attraction of carnivores) when carnivore fitness is reduced. Such a trade-off is expected in plant species that kill herbivore eggs by exhibiting a hypersensitive response (HR)-like necrosis, which should then negatively affect carnivores. We used the black mustard (Brassica nigra) to investigate how this potentially lethal direct trait affects preferences and/or performances of specialist cabbage white butterflies (Pieris spp.), and their natural enemies, tiny egg parasitoid wasps (Trichogramma spp.). Both within and between black mustard populations, we observed variation in the expression of Pieris egg-induced HR. Butterfly eggs on plants with HR-like necrosis suffered lower hatching rates and higher parasitism than eggs that did not induce the trait. In addition, Trichogramma wasps were attracted to volatiles of egg-induced plants that also expressed HR, and this attraction depended on the Trichogramma strain used. Consequently, HR did not have a negative effect on egg parasitoid survival. We conclude that even within a system where plants deploy lethal direct defences, such defences may still act with indirect defences in a synergistic manner to reduce herbivore pressure. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved. Source

Kolano B.,University of Silesia | Gardunia B.W.,Brigham Young University | Michalska M.,University of Silesia | Bonifacio A.,Fundacion PROINPA | And 6 more authors.

The chromosomal organization of two novel repetitive DNA sequences isolated from the Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genome was analyzed across the genomes of selected Chenopodium species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis with the repetitive DNA clone 18-24J in the closely related allotetraploids C. quinoa and Chenopodium berlandieri Moq. (2n = 4x = 36) evidenced hybridization signals that were mainly present on 18 chromosomes; however, in the allohexaploid Chenopodium album L. (2n = 6x = 54), cross-hybridization was observed on all of the chromosomes. In situ hybridization with rRNA gene probes indicated that during the evolution of polyploidy, the chenopods lost some of their rDNA loci. Reprobing with rDNA indicated that in the subgenome labeled with 18-24J, one 35S rRNA locus and at least half of the 5S rDNA loci were present. A second analyzed sequence, 12-13P, localized exclusively in pericentromeric regions of each chromosome of C. quinoa and related species. The intensity of the FISH signals differed considerably among chromosomes. The pattern observed on C. quinoa chromosomes after FISH with 12-13P was very similar to GISH results, suggesting that the 12-13P sequence constitutes a major part of the repetitive DNA of C. quinoa. © 2011 Published by NRC Research Press. Source

Cadima Fuentes X.,Fundacion PROINPA | Cadima Fuentes X.,Wageningen University | van Treuren R.,Wageningen University | Hoekstra R.,Wageningen University | And 2 more authors.
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution

Potato wild relatives are important sources of novel variation for the genetic improvement of the cultivated potato. Consequently, many natural populations have been sampled and were deposited as accessions in gene banks around the world. Here we investigate to what extent the genetic variation of Bolivian wild potato species is maintained under gene bank conditions and how this diversity relates to that of current in situ populations. For this purpose, materials from seven potato species were screened for microsatellite variation. Genetic changes between different generations of ex situ germplasm were not observed for Solanum leptophyes and S. megistacrolobum, but were detected for S. neocardenasii and S. okadae, while each of the species S. acaule, S. avilesii and S. berthaultii showed stability in some cases and genetic change in others. The observed changes were ascribed to genetic drift and contamination resulting from human error during regeneration. Re-collected populations of six of the studied species showed highly significant genetic differences with the ex situ accessions that, apart from changes during ex situ maintenance, are most likely to be attributed to sampling effects during collecting and in situ genetic changes over time. The implications of the results for ex situ and in situ conservation strategies of wild potato species are discussed. © 2016 The Author(s) Source

Cadima X.,Fundacion PROINPA | Cadima X.,Wageningen University | Van Zonneveld M.,Tropical Agriculture Research and Higher Education Center | Van Zonneveld M.,Ghent University | And 7 more authors.
Journal for Nature Conservation

Crop wild relatives possess important traits, therefore ex situ and in situ conservation efforts are essential to maintain sufficient options for crop improvement. Bolivia is a centre of wild relative diversity for several crops, among them potato, which is an important staple worldwide and the principal food crop in this country. Despite their relevance for plant breeding, limited knowledge exists about their in situ conservation status. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and distribution modelling with the software Maxent to better understand geographic patterns of endemic wild potato diversity in Bolivia. In combination with threat layers, we assessed the conservation status of all endemic species, 21 in total. We prioritised areas for in situ conservation by using complementary reserve selection and excluded 25% of the most-threatened collection sites because costs to implement conservation measures at those locations may be too high compared to other areas. Some 70% (15 of 21 species) has a preliminary vulnerable status or worse according to IUCN red list distribution criteria. Our results show that four of these species would require special conservation attention because they were only observed in <15 locations and are highly threatened by human accessibility, fires and livestock pressure. Although highest species richness occurs in south-central Bolivia, in the departments Santa Cruz and Chuquisaca, the first priority area for in situ conservation according to our reserve selection exercise is central Bolivia, Cochabamba; this area is less threatened than the potato wild relatives' hotspot in south-central Bolivia. Only seven of the 21 species were observed in protected areas. To improve coverage of potato wild relatives' distribution by protected areas, we recommend starting inventories in parks and reserves with high modelled diversity. Finally, to improve ex situ conservation, we targeted areas for germplasm collection of species with <5 accessions conserved in genebanks. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. Source

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