Bogotá, Colombia
Bogotá, Colombia

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Gomez-Montes C.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Moreno M.I.,Fundacion ProAves | Stevenson P.R.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Bayly N.J.,SELVA Investigacion para la Conservacion en el Neotropico
Ornitologia Colombiana | Year: 2010

Timing of breeding is a basic trait that should be understood to determine species' requirements during a crucial stage of their life cycle, especially if conservation measures are needed. This is the case of the San Andrés Vireo (Vireo caribaeus), a vulnerable insectivorous bird endemic to San Andrés Island, Colombia. We explored the relative importance of biotic and abiotic cues possibly acting as factors triggering breeding in this species. We hypothesized that being a marked seasonal breeder, the San Andrés Vireo would use biotic and/or abiotic cues, both proximal and ultimate, to predict the optimum time to start breeding. We calculated environmental predictability with Colwell's model using four years of brood patch and cloacal protuberance data, and correlated nest abundance during a single breeding season with biotic (food availability) and abiotic (photoperiod, rainfall) parameters. Environmental predictability was 54% and constancy contributed twice as much as contingency to this value. Photoperiod was the most probable proximate abiotic factor triggering a hormonal state of breeding readiness given its constant, reliable and measurable change in time. The first strong rains after the dry season and insect abundance probably act as ultimate factors contributing to fine tune the timing of breeding on a year-to-year basis. However, because we did not analyze the abundance of fruits, an important component of nestling diet, we might have underestimated the correlation between breeding and food abundance. Future studies should seek to confirm our correlational observations through controlled experiments and explore the importance of fruiting phenology on the timing of breeding.

Botero-Delgadillo E.,SELVA Investigacion para la Conservacion en el Neotropico | Paez C.A.,SELVA Investigacion para la Conservacion en el Neotropico | Verhelst J.C.,Fundacion ProAves
Ornitologia Colombiana | Year: 2012

The Santa Marta Parakeet (Pyrrhura viridicata) is an endemic and threatened species from Colombia, whose conservation needs include determining its population status and geographical distribution. This study compiled and analyzed geographic and population data obtained between 2006 and 2012 to aid the establishment of the species' current status. We modeled the species' potential distribution using the MaxEnt algorithm, and we estimated the area of occupancy and remaining habi-tat using a geographic information system. We combined these results to identify conservation gaps. Extrapolating from population density values obtained on the San Lorenzo slope in 2006 and 2008, we estimated the species' population size based on its area of occupancy and the extent of remaining habitat. The distribution model revealed that P. viridicata is re-stricted to humid forests mainly between 2000-3000 m elevation on the northern flank of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, in areas where seasonality in precipitation and in temperature is low. Assuming total occupation of remaining habitat (680 km2) and similar population densities across the species range, we estimate a population size of 2900-4800 individuals. If occupation is only partial, then the population is not expected to exceed 2500 individuals. A gap analysis indicated that 80% of the species' predicted range lies within protected areas, but we recommend increasing coverage through the creation of reserves while simultaneously increasing the efficacy of protective measures in existing protected areas. According to the gap analysis, it is likely that populations in the Ranchería River Basin are isolated from other populations in the massif, because any local migration would require flights through extensively deforested areas or across areas outside of the species' elevational range. Validation of the model will help identify other areas of potential occurrence for the species. Population monitoring and studies of habitat selection, home range and population dynamics, will help confirm our conclusions.

Donegan T.M.,Fundacion ProAves | Avendano J.E.,Industrial University of Santander | Avendano J.E.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Briceno-L. E.R.,Corporacion Autonoma Regional | And 7 more authors.
Cotinga | Year: 2010

We present a list of bird species recorded in Serranía de los Yariguíes, an isolated spur of the East Andes in Santander department, Colombia, and the surrounding region. Details of specific record localities, elevational range and documentation are included for 583 bird species, together with a brief discussion of the avifauna of the region and methods used to collect these data. Thirteen of the species recorded are considered threatened (Northern Helmeted Curassow Pauxi pauxi (EN), Blue-billed Curassow Crax alberti (CR), Gorgeted Wood Quail Odontophorus strophium (EN), Rusty-faced Parrot Hapalopsittaca amazonina (VU), Chestnut-bellied Hummingbird Amazilia castaneiventris (EN), Black Inca Coeligena prunellei (VU), White-mantled Barbet Capito hypoleucus (EN), Upper Magdalena Tapaculo Scytalopus rodriguezi (CR), Recurve-billed Bushbird Clyctotantes alixii (EN), Niceforo's Wren Thryothorus nicefori (EN), Cerulean Warbler Dendroica cerulea (VU), Turquoise Dacnis Dacnis hartlaubi (VU) and Colombian Mountain Grackle Macroagelaius subalaris (EN)) and several involve recently-described subspecies endemic to the massif.

Freeman B.G.,Cornell University | Class A.M.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University | Olaciregui C.A.,Fundacion ProAves | Botero-Delgadillo E.,SELVA Investigacion para la conservacion en el Neotropico
Ornitologia Colombiana | Year: 2012

We present the first detailed descriptions of the breeding biology of the Blue-naped Chlorophonia (Fringillidae; Chloropho-nia cyanea). In the Santa Marta Mountains, the Blue-naped Chlorophonia builds domed nests on vegetated roadbanks or roadside cliffs. They generally used existing vegetation to form the dome; in one case we inferred that a pair actively exca-vated a nest. This species lays a clutch of three eggs, white with reddish-brown speckling. The incubation period is 18-20 days, while the nestling period lasts 20-21 days. Both adults provision the nestlings equally, feeding regurgitated fruit in a stereotyped pattern, with an overall feeding rate of 3.5 feeding trips/hr. The main breeding season of the Blue-naped Chlo-rophonia in the Santa Marta Mountains is February to May.

Caranton-Ayala D.,Fundacion ProAves | Caranton-Ayala D.,University of Tolima | Certuche-Cubillos K.,University of Tolima
Ornitologia Colombiana | Year: 2010

We describe the Urrao Antpitta (Grallariidae: Grallaria urraoensis), a new species of suboscine passerine endemic to high Andean forests below Páramo de Frontino, in the northern sector of the Western Andes of Colombia. The new species is similar to the Brown-banded Antpitta (Grallaria milleri) from the Central Andes, but differs from it vocally and in its slightly larger size, lack of pectoral band, duller brown-olive coloration in the upperparts, uniform light gray underparts, and whitish lores. The new species occurs in the undergrowth of primary and secondary cloud forests dominated by Chusquea bamboo at elevations between 2500-3200 m at the type locality. We present notes on the ecology, distribution, behavior, reproductive biology, vocalizations, and conservation of the new species. The montane forests in the northern sector of the Western Andes to which the Urrao Antpitta is endemic are threatened by deforestation, fragmentation, and mining. These factors, in combination with the restricted geographic and ecological distribution of the new species, make it an important priority for conservation action.

We studied foraging behavior, diet composition, and diet variation in the Santa Marta Parakeet (Pyrrhura vindicate), an endemic species from Colombia listed as endangered (EN). We documented the use of 11 plant species between July and December of 2006 on the San Lorenzo Ridge, in the Santa Marta Mountains. The most frequently consumed species were Croton aff. bogotanus (Euphorbiaceae) (18.8%), Sapium sp. (Euphorbiaceae) (18.8%), and Lepechinia bullata (Lamiaceae) (15.91 %), and we found a restricted diet composition in periods when these resources were used. Niche breadth apparently responded to changes in food abundance, suggesting that the species exhibits ecological flexibility. The species showed high group cohesion during foraging and searching strategies. Foraging maneuvers depended on the plant consumed and specific parts of the plant selected. Like other congeners, this species appears to be polyphagous and ecologically flexible, although it has a stereotyped behavior in evolutionary terms. The use of altered vegetation for foraging could facilitate conservation. © The Neotropical Ornithological Society.

We made descriptions on the nesting of the Strong-billed Woodcreeper (Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus) and the Black-banded Woodcreeper (Dendrocolaptes picumnus) from observations in nest boxes at the Santa Marta Mountains, Colombia. Both species lined their cavities with dry leaves or flakes of bark, clutch sizes were of two or three eggs for Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus and just one egg for Dendrocolaptes picumnus, and chicks were similar to other woodcreepers' chicks. Although nest boxes could be useful for obtaining information of cavity nesters, information on natural nests is required to validate our data.

Donegan T.M.,Fundacion ProAves | Avendano J.E.,University of Los Andes, Colombia
Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club | Year: 2010

A new subspecies of Anisognathus lacrymosus is described from Serranía de los Yariguíes in the East Andes of Colombia. The new taxon differs in a combination of plumage characters, including a darker back and crown, from the geographically proximate subspecies A.l. tamae, A.l. pallididorsalis and A.l. olivaceiceps of the East and Central Andes, as well as, on average, having a longer tail than other East Andes populations. The darker plumage of the new subspecies resembles that of A.l. intensus of the West Andes (which also occurs in more humid habitats), presenting a 'leap-frog' pattern of geographic variation. The new subspecies is restricted to páramo and stunted Andean ridgetop habitats, apparently being endemic to the Yariguíes massif. Analyses of biometrics, plumage and voice support species rank for A. (lacrymosus) melanogenys of the Santa Marta Mountains, as previously suggested by some authors. Subspecies A.l. melanops, A.l. palldidorsalis, A.l. yariguierum and A.l. lacrymosus represent phylogenetic species based on plumage, but a greater vocal sample is required to further analyse the rank of these and other populations.

We present the first description of the nest and eggs of the Santa Marta Brush-Finch (Atiapetes meianocephaius), a species endemic to the Santa Marta Mountains, Colombia. Three nests were found; all were bulky cups built with different materials and located in different vegetation types, as found in other members of the genus Atiapetes. Nests contained two eggs, white with small brown spots. Nesting of A. meianocephaius apparently is not restricted to a specific habitat, suggesting that nests of the species could be found in almost any habitat with dense vegetation within its elevational range.

The Santa Marta Parakeet (Pyrrhura viridicata) is a poorly studied species and several aspects of its biology remain unknown. This study, carried out between July and December 2006 in the Cuchilla de San Lorenzo, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, describes its social behavior and vocalizations during foraging. During the first half of the morning, we recorded the greatest activity between 06:00 and 08:00 hours and group size ranged from three to 20 individuals, with a most frequent size of ca. 10 birds. Larger groups were associated with a concentrated source of food and with the start of the breeding season. We characterized four vocalizations associated with different stages of the events observed. Groups maintained high cohesion during foraging, which depended on group size and was related to the spatial distribution of individuals in the vegetation. Additionally, we noted the recurrent presence of parakeets in the same trees for weeks, which is common for other parrots, and was related to their foraging cycle and food availability. These data may allow identification of critical areas, resources and stages during the life cycle of the parakeet, which could be essential for conservation planning.

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