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Moynihan M.,University of Michigan | Villamor E.,University of Michigan | Marin C.,Fundacion Para Investigacion en Nutricion y Salud FINUSAD | Mora-Plazas M.,Fundacion Para Investigacion en Nutricion y Salud FINUSAD | And 2 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2015

Objective Long-chain n-3 fatty acid intake in Colombia is low because fish consumption is limited. Vegetable oils with high n-3 fatty acid content are recommended, but their concentrations of trans fats were high in previous studies. Thus, regular monitoring of the fatty acid composition of vegetable oils is required. Our objective was to quantify the fatty acid composition in commercially available oils in Bogota, Colombia and determine if composition changed from 2008 to 2013. Design Cross-sectional study. We obtained samples of all commercially available oils reported in a survey of low-and middle-income families with a child participating in the Bogota School Children Cohort. Setting Bogota, Colombia. Subjects Not applicable. Results Sunflower oil had the highest trans-fatty acid content (2·18 %). Canola oil had the lowest proportion of trans-fatty acids (0·40 %) and the highest n-3 fatty acid content (9·37 %). In terms of percentage reduction from 2008 to 2013 in 18:1 and 18:2 trans-fatty acids, canola oil had 89 % and 65 % reduction, mixed oils had 44 % and 48 % reduction, and sunflower oil had 25 % and 51 % reduction, respectively. Soyabean oil became widely available in 2013. Conclusions The content of trans-fatty acids decreased in all oils from 2008 to 2013, suggesting a voluntary reduction by industry. We believe that regular monitoring of the fatty acid composition of oils is warranted. © 2015 The Authors. Source


Shroff M.R.,Michigan Public Health Institute | Perng W.,University of Michigan | Baylin A.,University of Michigan | Mora-Plazas M.,Fundacion Para Investigacion en Nutricion y Salud FINUSAD | And 2 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2014

Objective Snacking has been related to increased prevalence of overweight among school-age children in cross-sectional studies. It is uncertain, however, whether snacking influences the development of adiposity over time. Design We examined whether adherence to a snacking dietary pattern was associated with greater increases in children's BMI, subscapular:triceps skinfold thickness ratio and waist circumference over a median 2·5-year follow-up. Dietary patterns were identified through principal component analysis of an FFQ administered at recruitment in 2006. Anthropometric follow-up was conducted annually. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate rates of change in each indicator according to quartiles of adherence to the snacking pattern. We also examined change in BMI, subscapular:triceps skinfold thickness ratio and waist circumference in relation to intake of the food items in the snacking pattern. Subjects Children (n 961) 5-12 years of age. Setting Public schools in Bogotá, Colombia. Results After adjustment for age, sex, total energy intake and socio-economic status, children in the highest quartile of adherence to the snacking pattern had a 0·09 kg/m2 per year higher BMI gain than children in the lowest quartile (P trend = 0·05). A similar association was observed for mean change in subscapular:triceps skinfold thickness ratio (highest v. lowest quartile difference = 0·012/year; P = 0·03). Of the food items in the snacking pattern, soda intake was positively and significantly associated with change in BMI (P trend = 0·01) and waist circumference (P trend = 0·04) in multivariable analysis. Conclusions Our results indicate that snacking and soda intake are associated with development of adiposity in school-age children. © 2013 The Authors. Source

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