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Perng W.,University of Michigan | Mora-Plazas M.,Fundacion para Investigacion en Nutricion Y Salud | Marin C.,Fundacion para Investigacion en Nutricion Y Salud | Villamor E.,University of Michigan
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background:Studies regarding the role of iron on linear growth have yielded heterogeneous results. Some trials indicate that iron supplementation of iron-replete infants leads to slower-length gain. However, little is known of the relation between iron status and linear growth in school-Age children.Methods:We quantified plasma ferritin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), and hemoglobin in 2714 children aged 5-12 years at recruitment into a cohort study. Height was measured periodically for a median of 30 months. Height-for-Age Z-scores (HAZ) were calculated using the World Health Organization growth reference. Mixed effects models with restricted cubic splines were used to construct population HAZ-for-Age growth curves for sex- and age-specific quartiles of each iron status indicator.Results:Ferritin and MCV were each inversely related to attained HAZ among boys after the adjustment for baseline age, baseline body mass index-for-Age Z-score and socioeconomic status. There was a decreasing monotonic relation between quartiles of ferritin and estimated change in HAZ from ages 6 to 14 years (P trend=0.001); boys in the 4th quartile experienced a HAZ change that was 0.46 Z lower than that of boys in the 1st quartile (P=0.0006). Similarly, we observed smaller HAZ change among boys in the highest quartile of MCV in comparison with those in the 1st quartile (P trend=0.001). Hemoglobin was not related to linear growth in boys. None of the iron-status indicators were associated with linear growth in girls.Conclusions:Higher iron status, as indicated by ferritin and MCV, is related to slower linear growth in iron-replete school-Age boys. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source


Perng W.,University of Michigan | Rozek L.S.,University of Michigan | Mora-Plazas M.,Fundacion para Investigacion en Nutricion Y Salud | Duchin O.,University of Michigan | And 4 more authors.
Epigenetics | Year: 2012

Aberrations in global LINE-1 DNA methylation have been related to risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Micronutrients including methyl-donors and retinoids are involved in DNA methylation pathways. We investigated associations of micronutrient status and LINE-1 methylation in a cross-sectional study of school-age children from Bogotá, Colombia. Methylation of LINE-1 repetitive elements was quantified in 568 children 5-12 years of age using pyrosequencing technology. We examined the association of LINE-1 methylation with erythrocyte folate, plasma vitamin B12, vitamin A ferritin (an indicator of iron status) and serum zinc concentrations using multivariable linear regression. We also considered associations of LINE-1 methylation with socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics. Mean (± SD) LINE-1 methylation was 80.25 (± 0.65) percentage of 5-mC (%5-mC). LINE-1 methylation was inversely related to plasma vitamin A. After adjustment for potential confounders, children with retinol levels higher than or equal to 1.05 μmol/L showed 0.19% 5-mC lower LINE-1 methylation than children with retinol levels lower than 0.70 μmol/L. LINE-1 methylation was also inversely associated with C-reactive protein, a marker of chronic inflammation, and female sex. We identified positive associations of maternal body mass index and socioeconomic status with LINE-1 methylation. These associations were not significantly different by sex. Whether modification of these exposures during school-age years leads to changes in global DNA methylation warrants further investigation. © 2012 Landes Bioscience. Source


Perng W.,Harvard University | Villamor E.,University of Michigan | Mora-Plazas M.,Fundacion para Investigacion en Nutricion Y Salud | Marin C.,Fundacion para Investigacion en Nutricion Y Salud | Baylin A.,University of Michigan
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background/objectives:Studies in adults indicate that dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition may play a role in development of adiposity. Because adipocyte quantity is established between late childhood and early adolescence, understanding the impact of PUFAs on weight gain during the school-age years is crucial to developing effective interventions.Subjects/methods:We quantified N-3 and N-6 PUFAs in serum samples of 668 Colombian schoolchildren aged 5-12 years at the time of recruitment into a cohort study, using gas-liquid chromatography. Serum concentrations of N-3 (alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid) and N-6 PUFAs (linoleic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid) were determined as percentage total fatty acids. Children's anthropometry was measured annually for a median of 30 months. We used mixed-effects models with restricted cubic splines to construct population body mass index-for-age z-score (BAZ) growth curves for age- and sex-specific quartiles of each PUFA.Results:N-3 ALA was inversely related to BAZ gain after adjustment for sex, baseline age and weight status, as well as household socioeconomic level. Estimated BAZ change between 6 and 14 years among children in the highest quartile of ALA compared with those in the lowest quartile was 0.45 (95% confidence interval: 0.07, 0.83) lower (P-trend=0.006).Conclusions:N-3 ALA may be protective against weight gain in school-age children. Whether improvement in PUFA status reduces adiposity in pediatric populations deserves evaluation in randomized trials. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source


Thornton K.A.,University of Michigan | Marin C.,Fundacion para Investigacion en Nutricion Y Salud | Mora-Plazas M.,Fundacion para Investigacion en Nutricion Y Salud | Villamor E.,University of Michigan
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is highly prevalent among children worldwide. The effects of VDD include alterations of the immune response and increased risk of infection but little evidence exists in school-age children. We investigated the association of vitamin D status with morbidity in a prospective study of school-age children from Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: We measured plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in a random sample of 475 children (mean ± standard deviation age: 8.9 ± 1.6 years) and followed them for an academic year. Caregivers were asked to record daily information on the incidence of morbidity episodes using pictorial diaries. Baseline vitamin D status was classified according to 25(OH)D concentrations as deficient (<50 nmol/L), insufficient (≥50 and <75 nmol/L) or sufficient (≥75 nmol/L). We used Poisson regression to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals for days with diarrhea, vomiting, diarrhea with vomiting, cough with fever and earache or discharge with fever, comparing vitamin D-deficient with vitamin D-sufficient children. Estimates were adjusted for child's age, sex and household socioeconomic status. Results: The prevalence of VDD was 10%; an additional 47% of children were vitamin D-insufficient. VDD was associated with increased rates of diarrhea with vomiting (adjusted incidence rate ratio: 2.05; 95% confidence interval: 1.19, 3.53) and earache/discharge with fever (adjusted incidence rate ratio: 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 4.44). VDD was not significantly related to cough with fever. Conclusions: These results suggest that VDD is related to increased incidence of gastrointestinal and ear infections in school-age children. The effect of correcting VDD on reducing risk of these infections needs to be tested in supplementation trials. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source


Duchin O.,University of Michigan | Mora-Plazas M.,Fundacion para Investigacion en Nutricion Y Salud | Marin C.,Fundacion para Investigacion en Nutricion Y Salud | De Leon C.M.,University of Michigan | And 3 more authors.
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2013

Objective: The aim of the present study was to identify correlates of body image perception and dissatisfaction among school-aged children from Colombia, a country undergoing the nutrition transition. Design: Cross-sectional study. Using child-adapted Stunkard scales, children were asked to indicate the silhouette that most closely represented their current and desired body shapes. Body image dissatisfaction (BID) score was estimated as current minus desired silhouette. Height and weight were measured in all children. Sociodemographic data were collected through questionnaires completed by the children's mothers. Setting: Public primary schools in Bogotá, Colombia. Subjects: Children aged 5-12 years (n 629) and their mothers. Results: Mean BID score was 0.1 (SD 1.7). The strongest predictor of BID was actual BMI-for-age Z-score (BAZ). Compared with children with BAZ ≥-1 and <1, those with BAZ ≥ 2 had a 1.9 units higher BID score (P for trend <0.0001). BID tended to be higher in girls than boys at any level of BAZ. Other correlates of BID included child's height-for-age Z-score, maternal BMI and dissatisfaction with the child's body, and home ownership. Conclusions: Among school-aged children from a country experiencing the nutrition transition, body image perception was associated with the child's weight and height, and with maternal BMI, dissatisfaction with the child's body and socio-economic level. © The Authors 2013. Source

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