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Bogotá, Colombia

Ruiz-Garcia M.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Vasquez C.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Camargo E.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Leguizamon N.,Secretaria Distrital Ambiental | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Primatology | Year: 2011

The accurate identification of taxa of Aotus is essential for 1) the development of precise biomedical assays, 2) the determination of potential illegal traffic of this genus, and 3) conservation. Although many studies have contributed to what we know about the phylogenetics of Aotus, none used a sufficiently large number of samples to clarify its complexity. To address this need, we sequenced 696 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome-oxidase II gene (mtCOII) in 69 specimens of 7 taxa of Aotus. We also analyzed 8 microsatellite loci in 136 individuals of 6 taxa. In contrast to previous studies, we sampled only wild individuals and have a precise geographical origin for each one. The mtDNA results showed that: 1) the northern gray-necked group of Aotus is genetically more homogeneous than the polyphyletic red-necked group of Aotus; 2) the ancestors of Aotus vociferans seem to be the original species candidate for the current Aotus; 3) Aotus azarae azarae and A. a. boliviensis are the most differentiated taxa, likely a result of extreme genetic drift during stasipatric speciation; 4) the first genetic splits found among taxa of Aotus occurred during the Pliocene (or even Miocene) while the most recent ones happened during the Pleistocene, when forest refugia may have played an important role in speciation. The mean number of microsatellite alleles was 3-5.33 alleles per locus. We found some private alleles that could be useful in helping to identify illegal trade, although a larger sample size is needed to ensure that these alleles are really private to the relevant taxa. These new findings increase our understanding of the phylogeny of Aotus and the level of genetic diversity within different taxa of Aotus. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Wielgus J.,University of British Columbia | Zeller D.,University of British Columbia | Caicedo-Herrera D.,Fundacion Omacha | Sumaila R.,University of British Columbia
Marine Policy | Year: 2010

Colombia has coasts on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but its marine fisheries are limited by the relatively small size of commercially important stocks. However, diverse fishery resources have traditionally been exploited by coastal communities, and industrial fisheries have grown in recent years with the intensification of tuna fishing in both oceans. The management of Colombia's fisheries has been hampered by frequent administrative changes, which has notably led to the disappearance of a part of the official landings data. We estimated total fisheries removals (reported plus discards and unreported catches) in the Colombian Atlantic and Pacific Oceans for the period 1950-2006. We used secondary sources of information to estimate missing data, and we estimated subsistence fishing and the unreported by-catches of the shrimp and tuna fisheries. We used available information on seafood prices to estimate the relative economic impact (gross revenues) of the small-scale and industrial sectors for the period 2000-2006. Our results suggest that for the period 1950-2006, the Colombian marine fisheries catches may have been almost twice the landings reported by FAO on behalf of the country (2.8 times higher in the Atlantic; 1.3 times higher in the Pacific). Although the total gross revenues of industrial fisheries were higher than those of the small-scale sector, the latter commanded higher gross revenues in the Atlantic in 2006. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Caballero S.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Correa-Cardenas C.A.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Trujillo F.,Fundacion Omacha
Journal of Heredity | Year: 2015

Endangered giant otters, Pteronura brasiliensis, are found along the Amazon and Orinoco rivers and most of their tributaries. Hunting in the mid-1970s pushed giant otter populations to the brink of extinction. We studied population structure and genetic diversity of giant otters from Colombia's Orinoco basin using analyses of partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences obtained from scat material. We collected and analyzed 54 scat samples from 22 latrines, 2 tissue samples primarily from captive giant otters and 2 from hunted animals near Puerto Carreño and Puerto Inírida (Colombian Orinoco), as well as one tissue sample from Puerto Leguizamo (Colombian Amazon). Thirty-nine partial control region sequences were obtained (258bp), corresponding to 15 unique haplotypes. Most of these haplotypes, found in samples collected around Puerto Carreño, defined one phylogeographic group (phylogroup) not previously described. Higher genetic diversity in the Colombian Orinoco populations than in other South American populations suggests that this newly described phylogroup, as well as a second phylogroup defined from a few Colombian Orinoco and Amazon samples, should be considered distinct genetic management units. National conservation programs, particularly those aiming to establish protected areas, should manage these independently. Current Colombian confiscated animal reintroduction and captive reproduction programs should also consider such differentiation when determining reintroduction locations or improving husbandry practices. © 2015 The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. Source

Salinas C.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Cubillos J.C.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Gomez R.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Trujillo F.,Fundacion Omacha | Caballero S.,University of Los Andes, Colombia
EcoHealth | Year: 2014

Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes. © 2013 International Association for Ecology and Health. Source

Garcia J.M.,Fundacion Omacha | Botero-Delgadillo E.,SELVA Investigacion Para la Conservacion en El Neotropico
Ornitologia Colombiana | Year: 2013

We present several records of the Cinereous Becard (Pachyramphus rufus) in the departments of Vichada, Casanare and Meta in the Eastern Llanos of Colombia, where no previous records existed. Our reconstruction of the geographical distribu-tion suggests that the species is found throughout the Venezuelan and Colombian llanos, and the major rivers east of the Andes appear not to act as geographical barriers. The lack of previous records in this area appears mainly due to access difficulties and the political conflict. This data bias is a major gap in the information on the distribution of many bird species in eastern Colombia. Source

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