Fundacion Omacha

Bogotá, Colombia

Fundacion Omacha

Bogotá, Colombia
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Hakspiel-Segura C.,Autonomous University of Baja California | Rosso-Londono M.C.,Fundacion OMACHA | Canosa-Torrado A.,Jorge Tadeo Lozano University, Bogotá | Nino-Garcia J.P.,University of Antioquia
Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research | Year: 2017

Temporal and spatial changes of virioplankton abundance (VLP), chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration, and some environmental variables, were assessed from October 2004 to April 2005 at four sampling sites in a high-mountain reservoir in the Colombian Andes. VLP ranged from 2.4-10.5×107 and 3.6-6.5×107 VLP mL−1 in the samples from the photic zone and hypolimnion, respectively. Surface VLP showed a progressive increase from November to April in the limnetic zone, and until February in the littoral stations. This trend coincided with the gradual increase of the water column stratification, as well as the augment of the reservoir hydraulic volume. Principal components analysis showed a grouping of environmental (dissolved oxygen, pH, water temperature) and biological variables (VLP, Chl-a, bacterioplankton abundance and biomass) within the first component (26.4% of explained variance), associated to an increase of photosynthetic activity, as a potential supplement of organic substrates to heterotrophic viral hosts. High values of virus-to-prokaryote ratio (VPR), and a negative relationship between VLP and average biomass per prokaryotic cell, indicate strong viral control which is probably more intense on active and larger cells. These results provide a framework for understand the virioplankton responses to regional hydrological conditions and hydraulic behavior of this reservoir. The spatiotemporal scale of this study does not allow to confirm that viral dynamics is significantly affected by human activities causing potential alterations on nutrient cycling. © Escuela de Ciencias del Mar. All rights reserved.

Farias-Curtidor N.,Reservado | Barragan-Barrera D.C.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Chavez-Carreno P.A.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Chavez-Carreno P.A.,Duke University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2017

The nearest known population of common dolphins (Delphinus sp.) to the Colombian Caribbean occurs in a fairly restricted range in eastern Venezuela. These dolphins have not been previously reported in the Colombian Caribbean, likely because of a lack of study of the local cetacean fauna. We collected cetacean observations in waters of the Guajira Department, northern Colombia (∼11°N, 73°W) during two separate efforts: (a) a seismic vessel survey (December 2009-March 2010), and (b) three coastal surveys from small boats (May-July 2012, May 2013, and May 2014). Here we document ten sightings of common dolphins collected during these surveys, which extend the known range of the species by ∼1000 km into the southwestern Caribbean. We also collected nine skin biopsies in 2013 and 2014. In order to determine the taxonomic identity of the specimens, we conducted genetic barcoding and phylogenetic analyses using two mitochondrial markers, the Control Region (mtDNA) and Cytochrome b (Cytb). Results indicate that these specimens are genetically closer to the short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) even though morphologically they resemble a long-beaked form (Delphinus sp.). However, the specific taxonomic status of common dolphins in the Caribbean and in the Western Atlantic remains unresolved. It is also unclear whether the distribution of the species between northern Colombia and eastern Venezuela is continuous or disjoined, or whether they can be considered part of the same stock. © 2017 Farías-Curtidor et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Solari S.,University of Antioquia | Munoz-Saba Y.,National University of Colombia | Rodriguez-Mahecha J.V.,Conservacion Internacional Colombia | Defler T.R.,National University of Colombia | And 2 more authors.
Mastozoologia Neotropical | Year: 2013

We update the list of Colombian mammal species based upon a new revision of specimens in the major collections within and outside the country and a compilation of recent taxonomic changes of species present in the country. The result of these changes is a total of 492 native species, which represents a net increment of 62 species with respect to the previous list published in the year 2000, and this exceeds similar updates in other Neotropical countries. Although the level of knowledge differs greatly between groups, we provide some general indicators, as diversity on the level of orders, endemism, patterns of distribution, and conservation state. The greatest species richness occurs in the orders Chiroptera (198 spp.) and Rodentia (122 spp.), but there are 23 endemic species of rodents in contrast to only seven endemic bats. According to the nature and scale of the evaluations, between 39 (MAVDT) and 52 (IUCN) species of Colombian mammals are considered to be endangered. The major threats are still deforestation, hunting and illegal commerce. © SAREM, 2013.

Garcia J.M.,Fundacion Omacha | Botero-Delgadillo E.,SELVA Investigacion para la conservacion en el Neotropico
Ornitologia Colombiana | Year: 2013

We present several records of the Cinereous Becard (Pachyramphus rufus) in the departments of Vichada, Casanare and Meta in the Eastern Llanos of Colombia, where no previous records existed. Our reconstruction of the geographical distribu-tion suggests that the species is found throughout the Venezuelan and Colombian llanos, and the major rivers east of the Andes appear not to act as geographical barriers. The lack of previous records in this area appears mainly due to access difficulties and the political conflict. This data bias is a major gap in the information on the distribution of many bird species in eastern Colombia.

Ruiz-Garcia M.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Vasquez C.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Camargo E.,Pontifical Xavierian University | Leguizamon N.,Secretaria Distrital Ambiental | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Primatology | Year: 2011

The accurate identification of taxa of Aotus is essential for 1) the development of precise biomedical assays, 2) the determination of potential illegal traffic of this genus, and 3) conservation. Although many studies have contributed to what we know about the phylogenetics of Aotus, none used a sufficiently large number of samples to clarify its complexity. To address this need, we sequenced 696 base pairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome-oxidase II gene (mtCOII) in 69 specimens of 7 taxa of Aotus. We also analyzed 8 microsatellite loci in 136 individuals of 6 taxa. In contrast to previous studies, we sampled only wild individuals and have a precise geographical origin for each one. The mtDNA results showed that: 1) the northern gray-necked group of Aotus is genetically more homogeneous than the polyphyletic red-necked group of Aotus; 2) the ancestors of Aotus vociferans seem to be the original species candidate for the current Aotus; 3) Aotus azarae azarae and A. a. boliviensis are the most differentiated taxa, likely a result of extreme genetic drift during stasipatric speciation; 4) the first genetic splits found among taxa of Aotus occurred during the Pliocene (or even Miocene) while the most recent ones happened during the Pleistocene, when forest refugia may have played an important role in speciation. The mean number of microsatellite alleles was 3-5.33 alleles per locus. We found some private alleles that could be useful in helping to identify illegal trade, although a larger sample size is needed to ensure that these alleles are really private to the relevant taxa. These new findings increase our understanding of the phylogeny of Aotus and the level of genetic diversity within different taxa of Aotus. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Palacios D.M.,University of Hawaii at Manoa | Palacios D.M.,Pacific Research Fisheries Center | Herrera J.C.,Aereo | Gerrodette T.,Southwest Fisheries Science Center | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Cetacean Research and Management | Year: 2012

Cetacean sighting data collected under various programmes in Colombian Pacific waters were collated with the goal of assessing the distribution and abundance patterns of all species occurring in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Distribution maps are presented for 19 species and one genus based on 603 sightings collected between 1986 and 2008. Ordered by sighting frequency, these species were: humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae); striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba); common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus); pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata); common dolphin (Delphinus delphis); Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus); sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus); rough-toothed dolphin (Steno bredanensis); short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus); mesoplodont whales (Mesoplodon spp.); Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris); melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electro); false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens); killer whale (Orcinus orca); spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris); dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima); Bryde's whale (Balaenoptera edeni); pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata); minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus). Concentrations of sightings were observed in three geographic areas: (1) the continental shelf (depths <200m) and the contiguous continental slope (200-2,000m); (2) over the Malpelo Ridge, an offshore bathymétrie feature and (3) the northeast corner of the EEZ between Golfo de Cupica and the border with Panamá, although we do not rule out that these patterns could be an artefact of non-random effort. In inshore waters, the most frequently seen species were pantropical spotted dolphin, common bottlenose dolphin and humpback whale. For several of the data sets we provide encounter rates as indices of relative abundance, but urge caution in their interpretation because of methodological limitations and because several factors that affect sightability could not be accounted for in these estimates. Our results provide useful information for ongoing regional research and conservation initiatives aimed at determining occurrence, population status and connectivity within adjacent EEZs in the eastern tropical Pacific. Suggested research priorities include conducting dedicated surveys designed for estimating abundance and monitoring trends throughout the EEZ and focused studies in areas of special interest like the continental shelf, the Malpelo Ridge and the vicinity of Cupica and Cabo Marzo. More research is also needed in terms of quantifying the sources and impact of anthropogenic mortality on population size. Studies characterising genetic diversity and stock discreteness in coastal species (pantropical spotted dolphin and common bottlenose dolphin) would help inform local management strategies.

Satizabal P.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Mignucci-Giannoni A.A.,University of Puerto Rico at San Juan | Duchene S.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Duchene S.,University of Sydney | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Phylogeographic patterns and sex-biased dispersal were studied in riverine populations of West Indian (Trichechus manatus) and Amazonian manatees (T. inunguis) in South America, using 410bp D-loop (Control Region, Mitochondrial DNA) sequences and 15 nuclear microsatellite loci. This multi-locus approach was key to disentangle complex patterns of gene flow among populations. D-loop analyses revealed population structuring among all Colombian rivers for T. manatus, while microsatellite data suggested no structure. Two main populations of T. inunguis separating the Colombian and Peruvian Amazon were supported by analysis of the D-loop and microsatellite data. Overall, we provide molecular evidence for differences in dispersal patterns between sexes, demonstrating male-biased gene flow dispersal in riverine manatees. These results are in contrast with previously reported levels of population structure shown by microsatellite data in marine manatee populations, revealing low habitat restrictions to gene flow in riverine habitats, and more significant dispersal limitations for males in marine environments. © 2012 Satizábal et al.

Salinas C.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Cubillos J.C.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Gomez R.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Trujillo F.,Fundacion Omacha | Caballero S.,University of Los Andes, Colombia
EcoHealth | Year: 2014

Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes. © 2013 International Association for Ecology and Health.

Wielgus J.,University of British Columbia | Zeller D.,University of British Columbia | Caicedo-Herrera D.,Fundacion Omacha | Sumaila R.,University of British Columbia
Marine Policy | Year: 2010

Colombia has coasts on both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, but its marine fisheries are limited by the relatively small size of commercially important stocks. However, diverse fishery resources have traditionally been exploited by coastal communities, and industrial fisheries have grown in recent years with the intensification of tuna fishing in both oceans. The management of Colombia's fisheries has been hampered by frequent administrative changes, which has notably led to the disappearance of a part of the official landings data. We estimated total fisheries removals (reported plus discards and unreported catches) in the Colombian Atlantic and Pacific Oceans for the period 1950-2006. We used secondary sources of information to estimate missing data, and we estimated subsistence fishing and the unreported by-catches of the shrimp and tuna fisheries. We used available information on seafood prices to estimate the relative economic impact (gross revenues) of the small-scale and industrial sectors for the period 2000-2006. Our results suggest that for the period 1950-2006, the Colombian marine fisheries catches may have been almost twice the landings reported by FAO on behalf of the country (2.8 times higher in the Atlantic; 1.3 times higher in the Pacific). Although the total gross revenues of industrial fisheries were higher than those of the small-scale sector, the latter commanded higher gross revenues in the Atlantic in 2006. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Caballero S.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Correa-Cardenas C.A.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Trujillo F.,Fundacion OMACHA
Journal of Heredity | Year: 2015

Endangered giant otters, Pteronura brasiliensis, are found along the Amazon and Orinoco rivers and most of their tributaries. Hunting in the mid-1970s pushed giant otter populations to the brink of extinction. We studied population structure and genetic diversity of giant otters from Colombia's Orinoco basin using analyses of partial mitochondrial DNA control region sequences obtained from scat material. We collected and analyzed 54 scat samples from 22 latrines, 2 tissue samples primarily from captive giant otters and 2 from hunted animals near Puerto Carreño and Puerto Inírida (Colombian Orinoco), as well as one tissue sample from Puerto Leguizamo (Colombian Amazon). Thirty-nine partial control region sequences were obtained (258bp), corresponding to 15 unique haplotypes. Most of these haplotypes, found in samples collected around Puerto Carreño, defined one phylogeographic group (phylogroup) not previously described. Higher genetic diversity in the Colombian Orinoco populations than in other South American populations suggests that this newly described phylogroup, as well as a second phylogroup defined from a few Colombian Orinoco and Amazon samples, should be considered distinct genetic management units. National conservation programs, particularly those aiming to establish protected areas, should manage these independently. Current Colombian confiscated animal reintroduction and captive reproduction programs should also consider such differentiation when determining reintroduction locations or improving husbandry practices. © 2015 The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved.

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