Fundacion Oftalmologica Del Mediterraneo

Valencia, Spain

Fundacion Oftalmologica Del Mediterraneo

Valencia, Spain

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Alvarez-Nolting R.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | Arnal E.,Fundacion Oftalmologica Del Mediterraneo | Barcia J.M.,San Vicente Mártir Catholic University of Valencia | Miranda M.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | And 2 more authors.
Neurochemical Research | Year: 2012

The mechanisms underlying diabetic encephalopathy, are only partially understood. In this study, we try to address the mechanisms of diabetes induced damage and whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) could attenuate the degenerative changes in diabetic hippocampus in a rodent model of diabetes. Diabetes was induced in rats by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Animals were divided into the following experimental groups: control rats; control animals treated with DHA; untreated diabetic rats; diabetic rats treated with insulin; diabetic rats treated with DHA; diabetic rats treated with insulin and DHA. At the end of week 12, rats were killed and one of the hemispheres was cryosectioned and the other was dissected and hippocampi homogenized. The number of bromodeoxyuridine positive cells in the hippocampus of diabetic rats was decreased, and the latency time to find the platform in the Morris Water maze was significantly increased in the diabetic rats when compared to controls. No changes where observed in the expression of p21 in the hippocampus of control and diabetic rats. Biochemical markers of oxidative stress were altered in hippocampus of diabetic rats, and NFκB-positive cells were increased in the hippocampus of diabetic rats when compared to controls. Treatment with DHA, or the combination of DHA with insulin, significantly restored to control levels all the values mentioned above. Our findings confirm a pivotal role for oxidative stress as well as NF-κB, but not p21, in diabetes-induced hippocampal impairments. Administration of DHA as well as insulin prevented the changes induced by diabetes in hippocampus. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Bueno-Gimeno I.,University of Valencia | Espana-Gregori E.,University of Valencia | Gene-Sampedro A.,University of Valencia | Lanzagorta-Aresti A.,Fundacion Oftalmologica Del Mediterraneo | And 2 more authors.
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2014

PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between different ocular and corneal biomechanical parameters in emmetropic and ametropic healthy white children. METHODS: This study included 293 eyes of 293 healthy Spanish children (135 boys and 158 girls), ranging in age from 6 to 17 years. Subjects were divided according to the refractive error: control (emmetropia, 99 children), myopia (100 children), and hyperopia (94 children) groups. In all cases, corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) were evaluated with the Ocular Response Analyzer system. Axial length (AL) and mean corneal power were also measured by partial coherence interferometry (IOLMaster), and central corneal thickness (CCT) and anterior chamber depth were measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (Visante). RESULTS: Mean (±SD) CH and CRF were 12.12 (±1.71) and 12.30 (±1.89) mm Hg, respectively. Mean (±SD) CCT was 542.68 (±37.20) μm and mean (±SD) spherical equivalent was +0.14 (±3.41) diopters. A positive correlation was found between CH and CRF (p < 0.001), and both correlated as well with CCT (p < 0.0001). Corneal resistance factor was found to decrease with increasing age (p = 0.01). Lower levels of CH were associated with longer AL and more myopia (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). Higher values of CH were associated with increasing hyperopia. Significant differences in CH were found between emmetropic and myopic groups (p < 0.001) and between myopic and hyperopic groups (p = 0.011). There were also significant differences in CRF between emmetropic and myopic groups (p = 0.02). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that lower CH and CRF significantly associated with thinner CCT, longer AL, and flatter corneal curvature. CONCLUSIONS: The Ocular Response Analyzer corneal biomechanical properties seem to be compromised in myopia from an early age, especially in high myopia. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Optometry.


Capilla P.,University of Valencia | Luque M.J.,University of Valencia | De Fez M.D.,University of Alicante | Garcia-Domene M.C.,Fundacion Oftalmologica Del Mediterraneo | Diez-Ajenjo M.A.,Fundacion Oftalmologica Del Mediterraneo
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2012

PURPOSE. We aim to simulate how colored images are perceived by subjects with local achromatic and chromatic contrast sensitivity losses in the visual field (VF). METHODS. The spatiochromatic corresponding pair algorithm, introduced in a previous article (J Opt Soc Am (A) 2004;21:176-186), has been implemented with a linear model of the visual system. Spatial information is processed separately by the chromatic and achromatic mechanisms by means of a multiscale model, with sensors selective to frequency, orientation, and spatial position, whose mechanism-dependent relative weights change with the spatial location of the image. These weights have been obtained from perimetric data from a patient with Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy and an age-matched sample of normal subjects, using achromatic, red-green, and blue-yellow gratings of different spatial frequencies. Distortion contours for each mechanism have been derived from the images simulating the perception of these subjects at different locations in the VF. RESULTS. The images simulating the perception of normal subjects at different locations of the VF show a fast decrease in image quality with eccentricity. The same analysis carried out with the Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy patient reveals worse overall image quality throughout the VF, plus a color vision defect resembling red-green dichromacy at fovea and trichromatic anomaly in the rest of the VF. CONCLUSIONS. In the present article, we show that implementing the algorithm with a spatial vision model that considers the changes in contrast sensitivity with spatial location of the stimulus may reveal the local effects that are suffered, in general, by pathological subjects, and that are ignored by simpler spatial vision models. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Optometry.


Felipe A.,Fundacion Oftalmologica del Mediterraneo | Felipe A.,University of Valencia | Artigas J.M.,Fundacion Oftalmologica del Mediterraneo | Artigas J.M.,University of Valencia | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Refractive Surgery | Year: 2012

PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes in optical quality when toric intraocular lenses (IOL) are rotated or tilted and to demonstrate that IOL rotation produces an increasing effect of aberrations. METHODS: Modulation transfer function (MTF) and average modulation were used to analyze the image quality of a toric IOL. The axis of the toric IOL was rotated 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, 25°, and 30° in successive MTF measurements. The tilt values were 0° to 5°, in increments of 1°, plus a tilt of 15°. Pupil diameters of 3 and 5 mm were used. RESULTS: The MTF decay due to aberrations was more sensitive to rotation than tilt. The main decrement in the average modulation, of approximately 50% in both pupils, occurs when the IOL rotates from 0° to 5°. Between 0° and 1° tilt, the average modulation decreases approximately 25% for both pupils; with tilt >1°, the average modulation remains virtually unchanged. The points representing average modulation versus rotation angle are satisfactorily fitted by an exponential function, R=0.98. Average modulation versus tilt angle provides lower correlation degrees, R=0.91 and R=0.79, for 3- and 5-mm pupils, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The MTF of the toric IOL decays with rotation and tilt, with greater decrement occurring in rotation from 0° to 5°. An asymptotic value exists in the average modulation decay, meaning that for angles higher than 15°, the average modulation of the toric IOL remains virtually constant. Copyright © SLACK Incorporated.


Artigas J.M.,Fundacion Oftalmologica del Mediterraneo | Artigas J.M.,University of Valencia | Felipe A.,Fundacion Oftalmologica del Mediterraneo | Felipe A.,University of Valencia | And 3 more authors.
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science | Year: 2012

PURPOSE. To experimentally measure the spectral transmission of human crystalline lenses belonging to adult and elderly persons, and to determine the color and total transmission of visible light of such crystalline lenses. METHODS. The spectral transmission curve of 32 human crystalline lenses was measured using a PerkinElmer 800UV/ VIS spectrometer. Total transmission of visible light and the chromatic coordinates of these crystalline lenses were determined from these curves for solar illumination. RESULTS. The crystalline lens that filters UV and its transmission in the visible spectrum decreases with age; such a decrease is greater for short wavelengths. The total transmission of visible light decreases, especially after the age of 70 years, and the crystalline color becomes yellower and saturated. CONCLUSIONS. The great variability existing in the spectral transmission of the human crystalline lens is lesser between the ages of 40 and 59 years, but greater from the age of 60 and older. The decrement in transmittance between these two age groups varies from 40% for 420 nm to 18% for 580 nm. Nevertheless, it is proven that age is not the only parameter affecting crystalline transmission. In the range of 40 to 59 years, age does not bear an influence on total transmission of light, but from 60 years and older it does. Moreover, the light transmitted decreases with age. This total transmission of light is similar to or lower than the amount that the different intraocular lenses transmit, even with a yellow or orange filter. The color of the human lens becomes yellowish and saturated with age. © 2012 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.


Felipe A.,Fundacion Oftalmologica Del Mediterraneo | Felipe A.,University of Valencia | Artigas J.M.,Fundacion Oftalmologica Del Mediterraneo | Artigas J.M.,University of Valencia | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery | Year: 2011

Purpose: To analyze changes in the eye's refractive properties when a toric intraocular lens (IOL) rotates. Setting: Fundación Oftalmológica del Mediterráneo, Valencia, Spain. Design: Experimental study. Methods: The matrix definition of astigmatism was used in this theoretical study and compared with another vector representation. Two methods were compared: (1) The cylinder, C, resulting from the addition of 2 cylinders C 1 and C 2 whose axes form an angle a, is obtained by the addition of 2 vectors of values C 1 and C 2 forming an angle 2a; (2) the power matrix, F, of a thin astigmatic dioptric system that decomposes naturally into 3 orthogonal components: the purely spherical part F nes, the ortho-astigmatism F or, and oblique astigmatism F ob. Results: The residual cylinder was one third of the corneal astigmatism when a toric IOL rotated ±10 degrees when the cylinder values for the cornea (C 1) and IOL (C 2) were equal. Nevertheless, in most cases C 1 is greater than C 2; therefore, the residual astigmatism did not change noticeably with small rotations. The angle of rotation, b, which annuls the astigmatism correction, could be obtained from the following: cos(π + 2b) = -r/2, with r being the ratio between the IOL and cornea cylinders. Conclusions: The 2 methods gave equivalent results. When the IOL cylinder had a value different from that of the corneal astigmatism, a better choice would be a lower, rather than higher, cylinder value to reduce residual astigmatism. In general, toric IOL rotations less than 10 degrees changed the eye's refraction less than 0.50 diopter. Thus, small axis rotations are not an obstacle for satisfactory astigmatism correction with toric IOLs. Financial Disclosure: No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS.


Luque M.J.,University of Valencia | Capilla P.,University of Valencia | De Fez M.D.,University of Alicante | Garcia-Domene M.C.,Fundacion Oftalmologica del Mediterraneo
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2010

PURPOSE.: We simulate how subjects with losses in chromatic and achromatic contrast sensitivity perceive colored images by using the spatiochromatic corresponding pair algorithm. METHODS.: This is a generalized version of the algorithm by Capilla et al. (J Opt Soc Am (A) 2004;21:176-186) for simulating color perception of color deviant subjects, which incorporates a simple spatial vision model, consisting of a linear filtering stage, with a band-pass achromatic filter and two low-pass chromatic ones, for the red-green and blue-yellow mechanisms. These filters, except for the global scaling, are the subject's contrast sensitivity functions measured along the cardinal directions of the color space. In its present form, the algorithm would serve to simulate alterations both in the spectral sensitivities and in the contrast sensitivities of the visual mechanisms. RESULTS.: After a preliminary theoretical study on the effect of frequency selective and overall reductions in the contrast sensitivity function of a single mechanism, we present cases of real subjects with glaucoma and diabetes, suffering alterations of different magnitude in the three mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS.: The simulations allow us to learn about the different types of distortions that can be experienced by a subject with impaired contrast sensitivities (blur, haloes, color shifts, local or global contrast, brightness and colorfulness reductions, etc.) and highlight the difficulties arising when trying to predict the quality of the final image from the losses in the individual mechanisms. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Optometry.


Merida S.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | Sancho-Tello M.,University of Valencia | Muriach M.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | Miranda M.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | And 2 more authors.
Free Radical Research | Year: 2013

Inflammation results in the production of free radicals. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacity of lipoic acid in an experimental uveitis model upon a subcutaneous injection of endotoxin into Lewis rats. The role of oxidative stress in the endotoxin-induced uveitis model is well-known. Besides, the Th1 response classically performs a central part in the immunopathological process of experimental autoimmune uveitis. Exogenous sources of lipoic acid have been shown to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Our results show that lipoic acid treatment plays a preventive role in endotoxin-induced oxidative stress at 24 h post-administration and reduced Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines by approximately 50-60%. Simultaneously, lipoic acid treatment caused a significant reduction in uveal histopathological grading and in the protein concentration in aqueous humors, but not in cellular infiltration. © 2013 Informa UK, Ltd.


Goldberg I.,University of Sydney | Gil Pina R.,Clinica Oftalmologica Rafael Gil Pina | Lanzagorta-Aresti A.,Fundacion Oftalmologica del Mediterraneo | Schiffman R.M.,Allergan, Inc. | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Ophthalmology | Year: 2014

Aim: To compare the effi cacy and safety of single-dose bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preservative-free (PF) ophthalmic solution with bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods: In this multicentre, randomised, parallel-group study, patients were randomised to bimatoprost/timolol PF or bimatoprost/timolol once daily in the morning for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy endpoints, reflecting differing regional regulatory requirements, included change from baseline in worse eye intraocular pressure (IOP) in the per-protocol population at week 12, and the average eye IOP at weeks 2, 6 and 12 in the intent-to-treat population. Results: 561 patients were randomised (278 to bimatoprost/timolol PF; 283 to bimatoprost/timolol); 96.3% completed the study. Both treatment groups showed statistically and clinically significant mean decreases from baseline in worse eye IOP and in average eye IOP at all follow-up time points (p<0.001). Bimatoprost/timolol PF met all pre-established criteria for non-inferiority and equivalence to bimatoprost/timolol. Ocular adverse events were similar between treatment groups, with conjunctival hyperaemia being the most frequent. Most were mild or moderate in severity. Conclusions: Bimatoprost/timolol PF demonstrated non-inferiority and equivalence in IOP lowering compared with bimatoprost/timolol, with no significant differences in safety and tolerability. Trial registration number: NCT01177098.


Lago M.A.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Ruperez M.J.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Martinez-Martinez F.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Monserrat C.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biomechanics | Year: 2015

This work presents a methodology for the in vivo characterization of the complete biomechanical behavior of the human cornea of each patient. Specifically, the elastic constants of a hyperelastic, second-order Ogden model were estimated for 24 corneas corresponding to 12 patients. The finite element method was applied to simulate the deformation of human corneas due to non-contact tonometry, and an iterative search controlled by a genetic heuristic was used to estimate the elastic parameters that most closely approximates the simulated deformation to the real one. The results from a synthetic experiment showed that these parameters can be estimated with an error of about 5%. The results of 24 in vivo corneas showed an overlap of about 90% between simulation and real deformed cornea and a modified Hausdorff distance of 25. μm, which indicates the great accuracy of the proposed methodology. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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