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Duparc T.,Catholic University of Louvain | Plovier H.,Catholic University of Louvain | Marrachelli V.G.,Fundacion Of Investigacion Del Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Valencia | Van Hul M.,Catholic University of Louvain | And 17 more authors.
Gut | Year: 2016

Objective To examine the role of hepatocyte myeloid differentiation primary-response gene 88 (MyD88) on glucose and lipid metabolism. Design To study the impact of the innate immune system at the level of the hepatocyte and metabolism, we generated mice harbouring hepatocyte-specific deletion of MyD88. We investigated the impact of the deletion on metabolism by feeding mice with a normal control diet or a high-fat diet for 8 weeks. We evaluated body weight, fat mass gain (using time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance), glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis (using metabolic chambers). We performed microarrays and quantitative PCRs in the liver. In addition, we investigated the gut microbiota composition, bile acid profile and both liver and plasma metabolome. We analysed the expression pattern of genes in the liver of obese humans developing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results Hepatocyte-specific deletion of MyD88 predisposes to glucose intolerance, inflammation and hepatic insulin resistance independently of body weight and adiposity. These phenotypic differences were partially attributed to differences in gene expression, transcriptional factor activity (ie, peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-a, farnesoid X receptor (FXR), liver X receptors and STAT3) and bile acid profiles involved in glucose, lipid metabolism and inflammation. In addition to these alterations, the genetic deletion of MyD88 in hepatocytes changes the gut microbiota composition and their metabolomes, resembling those observed during diet-induced obesity. Finally, obese humans with NASH displayed a decreased expression of different cytochromes P450 involved in bioactive lipid synthesis. Conclusions Our study identifies a new link between innate immunity and hepatic synthesis of bile acids and bioactive lipids. This dialogue appears to be involved in the susceptibility to alterations associated with obesity such as type 2 diabetes and NASH, both in mice and humans. © 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & British Society of Gastroenterology.

Cuellar-Baena S.,University of Campinas | Morales J.M.,University of Valencia | Martinetto H.,Fundacion para la Lucha de Enfermedades Neurologicas de la Infancia FLENI | Calvar J.,Fundacion para la Lucha de Enfermedades Neurologicas de la Infancia FLENI | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine | Year: 2010

Brain tumours are the most common solid tumours in children and a major cause of childhood mortality. The most common paediatric brain tumours include ependymomas, cerebellar astrocytomas and medulloblastomas. These brain tumours are highly heterogeneous regarding their histology, prognosis and therapeutic response. Subtle biochemical changes can be detected in intact tissues by High-Resolution Proton Magnetic Angle Spinning Spectroscopy (HR-MAS) revealing the status of tumour microheterogeneity and metabolic alterations before they are morphologically detectable. In this study, we present metabolic profiles by HR-MAS of 20 intact tissue samples from paediatric brain tumours. Tumour types include ependymoma, medulloblastoma and pilocytic astrocytoma. The metabolic characterization of paediatric brain tumour tissue by HR-MAS spectroscopy provided differential patterns for these tumours. The metabolic composition of the tumour tissue was highly consistent with previous in vivo and ex vivo studies. Some resonances detected in this work and not previously observed by in vivo spectroscopy also show potential in determining tumour type and grade (fatty acids, phenylalanine, glutamate). Overall, this work suggests that the additional information obtained by NMR metabolic profiling applied to tissue from paediatric brain tumours may be useful for assessing tumour grade and determining optimum treatment strategies.

Mayordomo-Febrer A.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | Lopez-Murcia M.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | Morales-Tatay J.M.,University of Valencia | Monleon-Salvado D.,Fundacion Of Investigacion Del Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Valencia | Pinazo-Duran M.D.,University of Valencia
Experimental Eye Research | Year: 2015

Glaucoma models are helpful to study disease characteristics and to design new therapeutic options. Metabolomic profiling approach have been used to elucidating the molecular characteristics of the aqueous humor. Juvenile male Wistar rats experimental (n = 15) and controls (n = 6) were used for these studies. Experimental rats received weekly intracamerular injection of 25 μl of sodium hyaluronate in the left eye and sterile saline solution in the right eye, consecutively for ten weeks. Rats were subjected to anterior/posterior eye segment examinations, intraocular pressure (IOP), and flash electroretinograms (ERG). The aqueous humor was collected at endpoints and analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Elevated IOP and significant reduction of a, b waves and amplitude of oscillatory potential was observed in the left eyes compared to control eyes. The aqueous humor metabolomic profile from control and the experimental eyes were compared. Concentrations of metabolites (amino acids, lipids and carbohydrates) significantly changed after the sodium hyaluronate injections series, compared to the sham-operated eyes. Metabolic changes in the hypertensive eyes correlated with the impaired retinal function. Observed metabolomic changes in aqueous humor in hypertensive state may play a significant role in glaucoma pathogenesis. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Serna E.,University of Valencia | Morales J.M.,University of Valencia | Mata M.,University of Valencia | Gonzalez-Darder J.,Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Valencia | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Around 20% of meningiomas histologically benign may be clinically aggressive and recur. This strongly affects management of meningioma patients. There is a need to evaluate the potential aggressiveness of an individual meningioma. Additional criteria for better classification of meningiomas will improve clinical decisions as well as patient follow up strategy after surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between gene expression profiles and new metabolic subgroups of benign meningioma with potential clinical relevance. Forty benign and fourteen atypical meningioma tissue samples were included in the study. We obtained metabolic profiles by NMR and recurrence after surgery information for all of them. We measured gene expression by oligonucleotide microarray measurements on 19 of them. To our knowledge, this is the first time that distinct gene expression profiles are reported for benign meningioma molecular subgroups with clinical correlation. Our results show that metabolic aggressiveness in otherwise histological benign meningioma proceeds mostly through alterations in the expression of genes involved in the regulation of transcription, mainly the LMO3 gene. Genes involved in tumor metabolism, like IGF1R, are also differentially expressed in those meningioma subgroups with higher rates of membrane turnover, higher energy demand and increased resistance to apoptosis. These new subgroups of benign meningiomas exhibit different rates of recurrence. This work shows that benign meningioma with metabolic aggressiveness constitute a subgroup of potentially recurrent tumors in which alterations in genes regulating critical features of aggressiveness, like increased angiogenesis or cell invasion, are still no predominant. The determination of these gene expression biosignatures may allow the early detection of clinically aggressive tumors. © 2013 Serna et al.

Serna E.,University of Valencia | Lopez-Gines C.,University of Valencia | Monleon D.,Fundacion Of Investigacion Del Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Valencia | Munoz-Hidalgo L.,Fundacion Of Investigacion Del Hospital Clinico Universitario Of Valencia | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Extensive infiltration of the surrounding healthy brain tissue is a critical feature in glioblastoma. Several miRNAs have been related to gliomagenesis, some of them related with the EGFR pathway. We have evaluated whole-genome miRNA expression profiling associated with different EGFR amplification patterns, studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization in tissue microarrays, of 30 cases of primary glioblastoma multiforme, whose clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features have also been analyzed. MicroRNA-200c showed a very significant difference between tumors having or not EGFR amplification. This microRNA plays an important role in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, but its implication in the behavior of glioblastoma is largely unknown. With respect to EGFR status our cases were categorized into three groups: high level EGFR amplification, low level EGFR amplification, and no EGFR amplification. Our results showed that microRNA-200c and E-cadherin expression are down-regulated, while ZEB1 is up-regulated, when tumors showed a high level of EGFR amplification. Conversely, ZEB1 mRNA expression levels were significantly lower in the group of tumors without EGFR amplification. Tumors with a low level of EGFR amplification showed ZEB1 expression levels comparable to those detected in the group with a high level of amplification. In this study we provide what is to our knowledge the first report of association between microRNA-200c and EGFR amplification in glioblastomas. © 2014 Serna et al.

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