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Asunción, Paraguay

Areta J.I.,CONICET | Bodrati A.,Proyecto Selva de Pino Parana | Thom G.,Programa de Pos Graduacao Em Zoologia | Rupp A.E.,Regional University of Blumenau | And 4 more authors.
Condor | Year: 2013

Semelparous woody bamboos flower fairly synchronously and in clocklike fashion after many years, providing abundant and nutritious seeds. However, this resource is ephemeral, localized, and unpredictable from the perspective of birds that feed on those seeds. Birds specializing on bamboo seeds track this food source and are nomadic. We recorded Temminck's Seedeater (Sporophila falcirostris) at 29 localities and the Buffy-fronted Seedeater (S. frontalis) at 23 localities in Argentina, Paraguay, and southeastern Brazil. In these species, nomadism is unassociated with any seasonal factor: birds may persist year round over several consecutive years if the seed supply is constant enough. Most occurrences and all breeding records were related to masting of bamboo; records of isolated birds away from seeding bamboo must represent individuals searching for bamboo patches. We report winter breeding of these species for the first time and demonstrate that the supply of bamboo seeds is the main limitation to their breeding. On a broad spatiotemporal scale, large-seeded bamboos (e.g., Guadua spp.) may function as strong population pumps, small-seeded bamboos (e.g., Chusquea spp.) as maintenance stations. Both species fed mostly on bamboo seeds, occasionally on bamboo flowers, and rarely on alternative food sources. They consumed insects frequently and occurred in mixed-species flocks, especially during autumn and winter. Creation of a network of protected areas is essential to preserve bamboo patches that flower at different times and localities in sufficiently large quantities to guarantee the long-term survival of the peculiarly dynamic populations of bamboo seedeaters. © The Cooper Ornithological Society 2013. Source

Carlson M.J.,ALCES Group | Mitchell R.,Environmental Resources Management Inc. | Rodriguez L.,Fundacion Moises Bertoni
Ecology and Society | Year: 2011

A common challenge facing land use planning is assessment of the future performance of land use options. The challenge can be acute in developing regions where land use is expanding rapidly and funding and data needed for planning are scarce. To inform land use planning for a biosphere reserve located in Paraguay's Atlantic forest region, a scenario analysis explored the relative merits of conventional and conservation agricultural practices, sustained yield forestry, and protection. Simulations compared the long-term impacts on land cover, biotic carbon, and income of the area's residents. Ecological and economic decline were projected under conventional practices. Protection and forestry scenarios achieved only small relative improvements to ecological indicators at the cost of reduced economic performance. By addressing the underlying issue of land degradation, conservation agriculture including no-tillage was the most successful land use strategy both ecologically and economically. Identification of conservation agriculture as the most promising land use strategy prioritizes issues that must be addressed to achieve sustainability, most importantly the provision of education and funding to smallholder farmers. We conclude that scenario analysis offers a flexible strategy to integrate available data for the purpose of informing land use planning in data-limited regions such as Paraguays Atlantic forest. © 2011 by the author(s). Source

De Angelo C.,National University of Misiones | Paviolo A.,National University of Misiones | Rode D.,Fundacion Vida Silvestre Argentina | Cullen L.,Institute Pesquisas Ecologicas | And 14 more authors.
ORYX | Year: 2011

Most large carnivores are secretive and threatened, and these characteristics pose problems for research on, and monitoring of, these species across extensive areas. Participatory monitoring, however, can be a useful tool for obtaining long-term data across large areas. Pumas Puma concolor and jaguars Panthera onca are the largest predators in the threatened Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest. To survey the presence of these two species we established a participatory network of volunteers and a partnership with researchers in the three countries that share the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest (Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay). We trained participants in simple methods of collecting faeces and track imprints of large felids. Between 2002 and 2008 > 100 volunteers helped with monitoring, obtaining 1,633 records identified as pumas or jaguars across c. 92,890 km 2. We confirmed jaguar presence in a large section of the Misiones Green Corridor in Argentina and in the largest protected areas of Brazil and Paraguay. Pumas exhibited a wider distribution, being recorded throughout Misiones province in Argentina and in some areas of Brazil and Paraguay where jaguars were not detected. Both species, and especially jaguars, were detected mainly in the few remaining medium and large forest fragments in this Forest. Although these carnivores are often in conflict with local people, their charisma and cultural significance makes them flagship species that motivated the participation of volunteers and institutions. Participatory monitoring allowed coverage of a vast area at relatively low cost whilst enhancing collaborative management policies among people and institutions from three countries. © 2011 Fauna & Flora International. Source

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