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Moumen M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Moumen M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Chiche A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Chiche A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 10 more authors.
Stem Cells | Year: 2012

The mammary epithelium comprises two major cell lineages: basal and luminal. Basal cells (BCs) isolated from the mammary epithelium and transplanted into the mouse mammary fat pad cleared from the endogenous epithelium regenerate the mammary gland, strongly suggesting that the basal epithelial compartment harbors a long-lived cell population with multipotent stem cell potential. The luminal cell layer is devoid of the regenerative potential, but it contains cells with clonogenic capacity, the luminal progenitors. Mammary BCs and luminal progenitors express high levels of the transcription factor Myc. Here, we show that deletion of Myc from mammary basal epithelial cells led to impaired stem cell self-renewal as evaluated by limiting dilution and serial transplantation assays. Luminal progenitor population was significantly diminished in mutant epithelium suggesting control by the BC layer. Colony formation assay performed with isolated BCs showed that clonogenic capacity was abolished by Myc deletion. Moreover, transplanted BCs depleted of Myc failed to produce epithelial outgrowths. Stimulation with ovarian hormones estrogen (E) and progesterone (P) partially rescued the repopulation capacity of Myc-depleted BCs; however, the Myc-deficient mammary epithelium developed in response to E/P treatment lacked stem and progenitor cells. This study provides the first evidence that in the mammary gland, Myc has an essential nonredundant function in the maintenance of the self-renewing multipotent stem cell population responsible for the regenerative capacity of the mammary epithelium and is required downstream from ovarian hormones, for the control of mammary stem and progenitor cell functions. © AlphaMed Press. Source

Moumen M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Moumen M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Chiche A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Chiche A.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 12 more authors.
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: Basal-like breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease characterized by the expression of basal cell markers, no estrogen or progesterone receptor expression and a lack of HER2 ov erexpression. Recent studies have linked activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and its downstream target, Myc, to basal-like breast cancer. Transgenic mice K5ΔNβcat previously generated by our team present a constitutive activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the basal myoepithelial cell layer, resulting in focal mammary hyperplasias that progress to invasive carcinomas. Mammary lesions developed by K5ΔNβcat mice consist essentially of basal epithelial cells that, in contrast to mammary myoepithelium, do not express smooth muscle markers.Methods: Microarray analysis was used to compare K5ΔNβcat mouse tumors to human breast tumors, mammary cancer cell lines and the tumors developed in other mouse models. Cre-Lox approach was employed to delete Myc from the mammary basal cell layer of K5ΔNβcat mice. Stem cell amplification in K5ΔNβcat mouse mammary epithelium was assessed with 3D-culture and transplantation assays.Results: Histological and microarray analyses of the mammary lesions of K5ΔNβcat females revealed their high similarity to a subset of basal-like human breast tumors with squamous differentiation. As in human basal-like carcinomas, the Myc pathway appeared to be activated in the mammary lesions of K5ΔNβcat mice. We found that a basal cell population with stem/progenitor characteristics was amplified in K5ΔNβcat mouse preneoplastic glands. Finally, the deletion of Myc from the mammary basal layer of K5ΔNβcat mice not only abolished the regenerative capacity of basal epithelial cells, but, in addition, completely prevented the tumorigenesis.Conclusions: These results strongly indicate that β-catenin-induced stem cell amplification and tumorigenesis rely ultimately on the Myc pathway activation and reinforce the hypothesis that basal stem/progenitor cells may be at the origin of a subset of basal-like breast tumors. © 2013 Moumen et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Alvarez-Rodriguez L.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla | Lopez-Hoyos M.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla | Beares I.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla | Mata C.,Fundacion Marques de Valdecilla IFIMAV | And 6 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology | Year: 2011

Objective: Coding variants in TLR4 gene have been reported to be associated with inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to determine whether two of these polymorphisms (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile) of TLR4 contribute to the genetic background of polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) and elderly-onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA). Furthermore, we have attempted to correlate the functional consequences of these polymorphisms. Methods: 164 patients with PMR, 93 with EORA and 126 unrelated age-matched controls were genotyped. The TLR4 genotypes were determined using allele-specific primers and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Association of genotypes and alleles with disease susceptibility and disease phenotypes were studied. TLR4 expression was assessed on PBMCs by flow cytometry and TLR4 function was assessed by stimulating PBMCs in vitro with LPS. Results: No significant difference in allele frequency or genotype between patients with elderly-onset inflammatory conditions and controls was observed. The Thr399Ile CC genotype was associated with a higher cumulative dose of corticosteroids in patients with PMR (p=0.031). We found no association with TLR4 expression on B cells, T cells or monocytes or a distinct phenotype of TLR4 response with the Asp299Gly or Thr399Ile genotypes. Conclusion: These results do not support the association of these TLR4 variants with two age-related inflammatory conditions. The value of determining Thr399Ile genotypes for disease prognosis in PMR should be confirmed in different populations. © Copyright CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL RHEUMATOLOGY 2011. Source

Alvarez-Rodriguez L.,University of Cantabria | Lopez-Hoyos M.,University of Cantabria | Mata C.,Fundacion Marques de Valdecilla IFIMAV | Jose Marin M.,University of Cantabria | And 5 more authors.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases | Year: 2010

Objective: To characterise the circulating cytokine profile and the cellular source of circulating cytokines in polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Methods: The study included 34 patients with active untreated PMR and 17 age-matched healthy controls (HC). Circulating cytokines were measured by cytometric bead array and ELISA. Intracellular cytokines were assessed in CD3+ and CD14+ cells by flow cytometry. Cytokines in cell culture supernatants were also determined after polyclonal stimulation of patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results: Circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL6) were significantly higher in subjects with active PMR than in HC. Corticosteroid (CS) treatment was followed by a decrease in the level of IL6. Intracellular cytokine staining showed that circulating monocytes did not produce higher amounts of proinflammatory cytokines in patients with PMR than in HC. There was a discordance between serum levels and cytokine-producing monocyte and T cells, and it was not possible to demonstrate a Th1 bias in the peripheral compartment. Conclusions: Active PMR is characterised by increased serum levels of IL6, but not of other proinflammatory cytokines, that are rapidly suppressed by CS treatment. As circulating monocytes do not show increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, IL6 may be mainly produced in the inflamed tissue. A study of the circulating cytokine profile and its cellular source may provide a clue to new therapeutic options. Source

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