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Rojas-Runjaic F.J.M.,Fundacion La Salle de Ciencias Naturales | Castroviejo-Fisher S.,American Museum of Natural History | Castroviejo-Fisher S.,Grande Rio University | Barrio-Amoros C.L.,Institute Biodiversidad Tropical
Check List | Year: 2013

Amazophrynella minuta is a small toad widely distributed in the lowlands and midlands of the Amazon and Guiana regions. Herein we report the first record of this species from Venezuela based on a single specimen from Raudal de Danto, Río Cuao, northwestern Amazonas state. This record extends the distribution of the species more than 500 km from the closest known localities in Colombia and Brazil. © 2013 Check List and Authors.

Gehara M.,TU Braunschweig | Gehara M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Crawford A.J.,University of Los Andes, Colombia | Crawford A.J.,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute | And 29 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Species distributed across vast continental areas and across major biomes provide unique model systems for studies of biotic diversification, yet also constitute daunting financial, logistic and political challenges for data collection across such regions. The tree frog Dendropsophus minutus (Anura: Hylidae) is a nominal species, continentally distributed in South America, that may represent a complex of multiple species, each with a more limited distribution. To understand the spatial pattern of molecular diversity throughout the range of this species complex, we obtained DNA sequence data from two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and the 16S rhibosomal gene (16S) for 407 samples of D. minutus and closely related species distributed across eleven countries, effectively comprising the entire range of the group. We performed phylogenetic and spatially explicit phylogeographic analyses to assess the genetic structure of lineages and infer ancestral areas. We found 43 statistically supported, deep mitochondrial lineages, several of which may represent currently unrecognized distinct species. One major clade, containing 25 divergent lineages, includes samples from the type locality of D. minutus. We defined that clade as the D. minutus complex. The remaining lineages together with the D. minutus complex constitute the D. minutus species group. Historical analyses support an Amazonian origin for the D. minutus species group with a subsequent dispersal to eastern Brazil where the D. minutus complex originated. According to our dataset, a total of eight mtDNA lineages have ranges >100,000 km2. One of them occupies an area of almost one million km2 encompassing multiple biomes. Our results, at a spatial scale and resolution unprecedented for a Neotropical vertebrate, confirm that widespread amphibian species occur in lowland South America, yet at the same time a large proportion of cryptic diversity still remains to be discovered. © 2014 Gehara et al.

Black D.,State University of New York at Stony Brook | Thunell R.,University of South Carolina | Wejnert K.,University of South Carolina | Astor Y.,Fundacion La Salle de Ciencias Naturales
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2011

The burning of fossil fuels and deforestation have significantly increased atmospheric CO 2 levels, from ∼280 ppm prior to the industrial revolution to the present value of ∼390 ppm. Suess (1955) was the first to show that the carbon isotopic composition of the atmosphere is changing in response to the anthropogenic input of radiocarbon-dead, 13C depleted CO 2 from fossil fuel combustion. Here we report a high resolution planktonic foraminiferal δ 13C record from the Caribbean Sea for the last 300 years that clearly resolves the timing and magnitude of the marine 13C Suess effect associated with the oceanic uptake of anthropogenically derived CO 2. Cariaco Basin sediment trap and upper-most box core sediment δ 13C match both the trend and magnitude of observed δ 13C changes in atmospheric CO 2 over the last 15 years. The longer sediment record suggests the marine Suess effect to be-0.75 ‰ from pre-industrial values, with most of the change occurring since 1950, coincident with the rapid rise in atmospheric CO 2 noted in ice core and instrumental data. If the current anthropogenic CO 2 emission trend continues, extrapolating our marine δ 13C rate curve into the future suggests that the rate of marine δ 13C change caused by anthropogenic CO 2 will increase to-0.10 ‰ yr -1 by the end of this century, an increase of more than an order of magnitude from 1950 values. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Rojas-Runjaic F.J.M.,Fundacion La Salle de Ciencias Naturales | Rojas-Runjaic F.J.M.,Grande Rio University | Guayasamin J.M.,Technological Amerindian University, Ambato
Check List | Year: 2015

Pristimantis myersi is a small Andean frog that inhabits paramos, sub-paramos and upper Andean forests at elevations between 2,900–3,275 m. It is known from about a dozen localities in the southern end of the Cordillera Central of the Colombian Andes. Herein, we report for the first time the presence of this species in Ecuador, based on ten specimens from three localities in the provinces of Imbabura and Sucumbíos. The species’ range is extended and a distribution map with the Ecuadorian records is provided. © 2015 Check List and Authors.

Armesto L.O.,Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research | Armesto L.O.,University of Pamplona | Quilarque E.,Venezuelan Institute for Scientific Research | Rojas-Runjaic F.J.M.,Fundacion La Salle de Ciencias Naturales | Rojas-Runjaic F.J.M.,Grande Rio University
Check List | Year: 2015

Dendropsophus meridensis is a medium-sized treefrog endemic to the Cordillera de Mérida in the Venezuelan Andes. The geographic distribution of this species is poorly known, and only 10 localities known in the literature. Most of these localities do not have associated geographic coordinates and altitude. In this note we provide eight new locality records and a geographic distribution map of D. meridensis, based on field work, revision of Venezuelan museum collections, and species distribution modeling. Three of these new localities were found after performing species distribution modeling. Additionally, some comments on natural history and color variation are included. © 2015 Check List and Authors.

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