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Felipo V.,Centro Investigacion Principe Felipe | Ordono J.F.,Servicio Neurofisiologia | Ordono J.F.,Psychopatology and Neurophysiology Unit | Urios A.,Fundacion Investigacion Hospital Clinico Universitario | And 10 more authors.

Attention deficit is an early event in the cognitive impairment of patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Mismatch negativity (MMN) is an auditory event-related potential that reflects an attentional trigger. Patients with schizophrenia show impaired attention and cognitive function, which are reflected in altered MMN. We hypothesized that patients with MHE, similarly to those with schizophrenia, should show MMN alterations related with attention deficits. The aims of this work were to assess whether (1) MMN is altered in cirrhotic patients with MHE, compared to those without MHE, (2) MMN changes in parallel with performance in attention tests and/or MHE in a longitudinal study, and (3) MMN predicts performance in attention tests and/or in the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES). We performed MMN analysis as well as attention and coordination tests in 34 control subjects and in 37 patients with liver cirrhosis without MHE and 23 with MHE. Patients with MHE show reduced performance in selective and sustained attention tests and in visuomotor and bimanual coordination tests. The MMN wave area was reduced in patients with MHE, but not in those without MHE. In the longitudinal study, MMN area improved in parallel with performance in attention tests and PHES in 4 patients and worsened in parallel in another 4. Logistic regression analyses showed that MMN area predicts performance in attention tests and in PHES, but not in other tests or critical flicker frequency. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses showed that MMN area predicts attention deficits in the number connection tests A and B, Stroop tasks, and MHE, with sensitivities of 75%-90% and specificities of 76%-83%. Conclusion: MMN area is useful to diagnose attention deficits and MHE in patients with liver cirrhosis. © 2011 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Source

Ibarrola-Villava M.,Fundacion Investigacion Hospital Clinico Universitario | Martin-Gonzalez M.,Ramon y Cajal Hospital | Lazaro P.,Gregorio Maranon Hospital | Pizarro A.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Dermatology

Background: Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 are multifunctional enzymes involved in the detoxification of a wide range of reactive oxygen species produced during melanin synthesis and oxidative stress processes. Objectives: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GSTP1 and copy number variants in GSTM1 and GSTT1 may be candidate low-penetrance variants with a role in susceptibility to malignant melanoma (MM). Methods In this case-control study, 562 Spanish patients with sporadic MM and 338 cancer-free control subjects were included, and the role of polymorphisms in these GST genes was investigated. Genotypes were established by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for GSTM1 and GSTT1 while TaqMan probes were used to genotype GSTP1 SNPs. Results: The GSTP1 polymorphism rs1695, which encodes the amino acid change p.Ile105Val, was individually associated with MM [odds ratio (OR): 1·32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1·06-1·63]. Furthermore, individuals carrying one or two MC1R nonsynonymous changes and GSTP1 rs1695 rare allele had an increased risk of developing MM (OR: 3·34, 95% CI: 1·42-8·09 and OR: 20·42, 95% CI: 2·80-417·42, respectively). Conclusions: This is the first time that the GSTP1 rs1695 polymorphism is reported to be associated with MM. In addition, this study is one of the largest GST polymorphism studies undertaken in the Spanish population and the first time that copy number variants have been scrutinized in relation to MM. © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists. Source

Vina J.,Fundacion Investigacion Hospital Clinico Universitario | Borras C.,Fundacion Investigacion Hospital Clinico Universitario | Sanchis-Gomar F.,Fundacion Investigacion Hospital Clinico Universitario | Martinez-Bello V.E.,Fundacion Investigacion Hospital Clinico Universitario | And 4 more authors.
Current Pharmaceutical Design

Scientific evidence links physical activity to several benefits. Recently, we proposed the idea that exercise can be regarded as a drug. As with many drugs, dosage is of great importance. However, to issue a public recommendation of physical activity in aging is not an easy task. Exercise in the elderly needs to be carefully tailored and individualized with the specific objectives of the person or group in mind. The beneficial effects of exercise in two of the main age-related diseases, sarcopenia and Alzheimer's Disease, are dealt with at the beginning of this report. Subsequently, dosage of exercise and the molecular signaling pathways involved in its adaptations are discussed. Exercise and aging are associated with oxidative stress so the paradox arises, and is discussed, as to whether exercise would be advisable for the aged population from an oxidative stress point of view. Two of the main redox-sensitive signaling pathways altered in old skeletal muscle during exercise, NF-κB and PGC-1α, are also reviewed. The last section of the manuscript is devoted to the age-associated diseases in which exercise is contraindicated. Finally, we address the option of applying exercise mimetics as an alternative for disabled old people. The overall denouement is that exercise is so beneficial that it should be deemed a drug both for young and old populations. If old adults adopted a more active lifestyle, there would be a significant delay in frailty and dependency with clear benefits to individual well-being and to the public's health. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Galbis-Estrada C.,Ophthalmic Research Unit Santiago grisolia | Galbis-Estrada C.,University of Valencia | Pinazo-Duran M.D.,Ophthalmic Research Unit Santiago grisolia | Pinazo-Duran M.D.,University of Valencia | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Vision

Purpose: We used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of hydrogen-1 nuclei (1H NMR S) to analyze the metabolic profile of reflex tears from patients with dry eye disorders. Methods: We performed a prospective case-control study involving 90 participants: 55 patients diagnosed with dry eye syndrome (DESG) and 35 healthy subjects (control group, CG). From the DESG, two subgroups were formed: mild DES (n=22) and moderate DES (n=33). Participants were prescribed an oral nutraceutic supplementation containing antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids to be taken as three capsules per day for 3 months. Reflex tears (20–30 μl) were collected from the tear meniscus of both eyes of each subject with a microglass pipette. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were acquired with a standard one-dimensional pulse sequence with water suppression; 256 free induction decays were collected into 64,000 data points with 14 ppm spectral width. Results: Basal tears showed a differential metabolomic profile between groups. Almost 50 metabolites were identified by H cholesterol, N-acetylglucosamine, glutamate, amino-n-butyrate, choline, glucose, and formate were detected before supplementation and choline/acetylcholine after supplementation. The metabolic profile of the tears was statistically different between groups, as well as before and after supplementation. Conclusions: Our data indicate that DES induces changes in the tear metabolic profile that can be modified with appropriate oral supplementation with antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. © 2015 Molecular Vision. Source

Alis R.,University of Valencia | Sanchis-Gomar F.,University of Valencia | Sanchis-Gomar F.,Fundacion Investigacion Hospital Clinico Universitario | Risso-Ballester J.,University of Valencia | And 5 more authors.

Although statins remain the cornerstone of lipid-lowering therapy for reducing the burden of atherosclerotic vascular disease, their administration has been associated with muscle-related adverse effects, including myalgia and rhabdomyolysis. Such adverse events are probably due to reduced antioxidant defenses associated with fewer intermediate metabolites in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. We hypothesize that the concomitant inhibition of xanthine oxidase via coadministration of allopurinol with statins could diminish reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related muscle damage, which would have in turn have positive effects on both the incidence of muscle-related adverse events and cardiovascular outcomes. Accordingly, inhibition of xanthine oxidase has been previously shown to be effective for reducing biomarkers of muscle damage following exercise in professional athletes. Because of the widespread statin utilization and increasing trends in their therapeutic use in atherosclerotic vascular diseases, the proposed strategy could have important clinical implications for reducing statin-induced myalgia and rhabdomyolysis. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

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