Felipo V.,Research Center Principe Felipe |
Urios A.,Fundacion Investigacion Hospital Clinico de Valencia |
Garcia-Torres M.L.,Hospital Clinico Universitario |
El Mlili N.,Fundacion Investigacion Hospital Clinico de Valencia |
And 7 more authors.
Obesity | Year: 2013
Objective: Obesity-associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), covering from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is a common cause of chronic liver disease. Aberrant production of adipocytokines seems to play a main role in most obesity-associated disorders. Changes in adipocytokines in obesity could be mediated by alterations in cyclic GMP (cGMP) homeostasis. The aims of this work were: (1) to study the role of altered cGMP homeostasis in altered adipocytokines in morbid obesity, (2) to assess whether these alterations are different in simple steatosis or NASH, and (3) to assess whether these changes reverse in obese patients after bariatric surgery. Design and Methods: In 47 patients with morbid obesity and 45 control subjects, the levels in blood of adipocytokines, cGMP, nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) were studied. Whether weight loss after a bariatric surgery reverses the changes in these parameters was evaluated. Results: NO metabolites and leptin increase (and adiponectin decreases) similarly in patients with steatosis or NASH, suggesting that these changes are due to morbid obesity and not to liver disease. Inflammation and cGMP homeostasis are affected both by morbid obesity and by liver disease. The increases in interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 18 (IL-18), plasma cGMP, ANP, and the decrease in cGMP in lymphocytes are stronger in patients with NASH than with steatosis. All these changes reverse completely after bariatric surgery and weight loss, except IL-18. Conclusion: Altered cGMP homeostasis seems to contribute more than inflammation to changes in leptin and adiponectin in morbid obesity.
Podo F.,Istituto Superiore di Sanita |
Buydens L.M.C.,Radboud University Nijmegen |
Degani H.,Weizmann Institute of Science |
Hilhorst R.,PamGene International B.V. |
And 14 more authors.
Molecular Oncology | Year: 2010
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC), characterized by absence of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and lack of overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), are typically associated with poor prognosis, due to aggressive tumor phenotype(s), only partial response to chemotherapy and present lack of clinically established targeted therapies. Advances in the design of individualized strategies for treatment of TNBC patients require further elucidation, by combined 'omics' approaches, of the molecular mechanisms underlying TNBC phenotypic heterogeneity, and the still poorly understood association of TNBC with BRCA1 mutations. An overview is here presented on TNBC profiling in terms of expression signatures, within the functional genomic breast tumor classification, and ongoing efforts toward identification of new therapy targets and bioimaging markers. Due to the complexity of aberrant molecular patterns involved in expression, pathological progression and biological/clinical heterogeneity, the search for novel TNBC biomarkers and therapy targets requires collection of multi-dimensional data sets, use of robust multivariate data analysis techniques and development of innovative systems biology approaches. © 2010 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
Belghiti M.,Research Center Principe Felipe |
Estevez-Herrera J.,Research Center Principe Felipe |
Gimenez-Garzo C.,Research Center Principe Felipe |
Gonzalez-Usano A.,Research Center Principe Felipe |
And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2013
Persistent pruritus is a common disabling dermatologic symptom associated with different etiologic factors. These include primary skin conditions, as well as neuropathic, psychogenic, or systemic disorders like chronic liver disease. Defective clearance of potential pruritogenic substances that activate itch-specific neurons innervating the skin is thought to contribute to cholestatic pruritus. However, because the underlying disease-specific pruritogens and itch-specific neuronal pathways and mechanism(s) are unknown, symptomatic therapeutic intervention often leads to no or only limited success. In the current study, we aimed to first validate rats with bile duct ligation (BDL) as a model for hepatic pruritus and then to evaluate the contribution of inflammation, peripheral neuronal sensitization, and specific signaling pathways and subpopulations of itch-responsive neurons to scratching behavior and thermal hypersensitivity. Chronic BDL rats displayed enhanced scratching behavior and thermal hyperalgesia indicative of peripheral neuroinflammation. BDL-induced itch and hypersensitivity involved a minor contribution of histaminergic/serotonergic receptors, but significant activation of protein-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) receptors, prostaglandin PGE 2 formation, and potentiation of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel activity. The sensitization of dorsal root ganglion nociceptors in BDL rats was associated with increased surface expression of PAR2 and TRPV1 proteins and an increase in the number of PAR 2- and TRPV1-expressing peptidergic neurons together with a shift of TRPV1 receptor expression to medium sized dorsal root ganglion neurons. These results suggest that pruritus and hyperalgesia in chronic cholestatic BDL rats are associated with neuroinflammation and involve PAR2-induced TRPV1 sensitization. Thus, pharmacological modulation of PAR2 and/or TRPV1maybe a valuable therapeutic approach for patients with chronic liver pruritus refractory to conventional treatments. © 2013 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Romero-Gomez M.,University of Seville |
Jover M.,University of Seville |
Del Campo J.A.,University of Seville |
Royo J.L.,Pablo De Olavide University |
And 14 more authors.
Annals of Internal Medicine | Year: 2010
Background: Hepatic encephalopathy is a major complication of cirrhosis and is associated with a poor prognosis. Objective: To identify mutations in the gene sequence for glutaminase in humans that could be responsible for the development of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Outpatient clinics in 6 Spanish hospitals. Patients: 109 consecutive patients with cirrhosis in the estimation cohort, 177 patients in the validation cohort, and 107 healthy control participants. Measurements: Patients were followed every 3 or 6 months until the development of hepatic encephalopathy or liver transplantation, death, or the end of the study. Results: The genetic analyses showed that glutaminase TACC and CACC haplotypes were linked to the risk for overt hepatic encephalopathy. Mutation scanning of the glutaminase gene identified a section in the promoter region where base pairs were repeated (a microsatellite). Over a mean follow-up of 29.6 months, hepatic encephalopathy occurred in 28 patients (25.7%) in the estimation cohort. Multivariable Cox models were used to determine the following independent predictors: Child-Turcotte-Pugh stage (hazard ratio [HR], 1.6 [95% CI, 1.29 to 1.98]; P = 0.001), minimal hepatic encephalopathy (HR, 3.17 [CI, 1.42 to 7.09]; P = 0.006), and having 2 long alleles of the microsatellite (HR, 3.12 [CI, 1.39 to 7.02]; P = 0.006). The association between 2 long alleles of the microsatellite and overt hepatic encephalopathy was confirmed in a validation cohort (HR, 2.1 [CI, 1.17 to 3.79]; P = 0.012). Functional studies showed higher luciferase activity in cells transfected with the long form of the microsatellite, which suggests that the long microsatellite enhances glutaminase transcriptional activity. Limitation: Other genes and allelic variants might be involved in the clinical expression of hepatic encephalopathy. Conclusion: This study identifies a genetic factor that is associated with development of hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. Primary Funding Source: Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Spanish Ministry of Health. © 2010 American College of Physicians.
Montoliu C.,Fundacion Investigacion Hospital Clinico de Valencia |
Rodrigo R.,Research Center Principe Felipe |
Monfort P.,Research Center Principe Felipe |
Llansola M.,Research Center Principe Felipe |
And 5 more authors.
Metabolic Brain Disease | Year: 2010
Cyclic GMP (cGMP) modulates important cerebral processes including some forms of learning and memory. cGMP pathways are strongly altered in hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Patients with liver cirrhosis show reduced intracellular cGMP in lymphocytes, increased cGMP in plasma and increased activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by nitric oxide (NO) in lymphocytes, which correlates with minimal HE assessed by psychometric tests. Activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by NO is also increased in cerebral cortex, but reduced in cerebellum, from patients who died with HE. This opposite alteration is reproduced in vivo in rats with chronic hyperammonemia or HE. A main pathway modulating cGMP levels in brain is the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway. The function of this pathway is impaired both in cerebellum and cortex of rats with hyperammonemia or HE. Impairment of this pathway is responsible for reduced ability to learn some types of tasks. Restoring the pathway and cGMP levels in brain restores learning ability. This may be achieved by administering phosphodiesterase inhibitors (zaprinast, sildenafil), cGMP, anti-inflammatories (ibuprofen) or antagonists of GABAA receptors (bicuculline). These data support that increasing cGMP by safe pharmacological means may be a new therapeutic approach to improve cognitive function in patients with minimal or clinical HE. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.