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Breña Baja, Spain

Pariani G.,National institute for astrophysics | Briguglio R.,National institute for astrophysics | Xompero M.,National institute for astrophysics | Riccardi A.,National institute for astrophysics | And 11 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2014

A particular example of meter class flat mirrors is the adaptive M4 Unit of E-ELT, a deformable six petals mirror of 2.4m in diameter. We studied different approaches to the calibration and certification of M4, in a trade-off between stitching and full aperture measurements. Possibilities to test the mirror with a macro-stitching concept, both in normal and grazing incidence have been considered. Approaches reported in the literature, as the Ritchey-Common or the external Fizeau, and different beam expander setups, varying the collimating mirror and the nulling system, both on-axis and off-axis, have been deeply studied to understand performances and sensitivities to fabrication errors, alignment errors and environmental effects. © 2014 SPIE. Source

Munari M.,National institute for astrophysics | Scuderi S.,National institute for astrophysics | Cecconi M.,INAF Fundacion Galileo Galilei
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

We report on the results of the conceptual design study of a broad band imager for the European Solar Telescope (EST), a joint project of several European research institutes to design and realize a 4-m class solar telescope. The EST broad band imager is an imaging instrument whose function is to obtain diffraction limited images over the full field of view of EST at multiple wavelengths and high frame rate. Its scientific objective is the study of fundamental astrophysical processes at their intrinsic scales in the Sun's atmosphere. The optical layout foresee two observational modes: a maximum field of view mode and a high resolution mode. The imager will have a 2′x2′ corrected field of view in the first mode and an angular resolution better than 0.04″ at 500nm in the latter mode. The imager will cover a wavelength range spanning from 390nm to 900nm through a number of filters with bandpasses between 0.05nm and 0.5nm. The selected optical layout is an all refractive design. To optimize optical performances and throughput there will be two arms working simultaneously: a blue arm (covering the 380nm - 500nm range) and a red arm (600nm - 900nm). The blue arm will have two channels while the red arm only one. Each channel will be divided in three subchannels: one will host narrow band filters for chromospheric observations, another one, in focus wide band filters used as reference for speckle reconstruction and photospheric observations, and the last one, out of focus wide band filters for phase diversity reconstruction of photospheric observations. © 2012 SPIE. Source

Vanderburg A.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Montet B.T.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Montet B.T.,California Institute of Technology | Johnson J.A.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | And 47 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2015

We report the first planet discovery from the two-wheeled Kepler (K2) mission: HIP 116454 b. The host star HIP 116454 is a bright (V = 10.1, K = 8.0) K1 dwarf with high proper motion and a parallax-based distance of 55.2 ± 5.4 pc. Based on high-resolution optical spectroscopy, we find that the host star is metal-poor with [Fe/H] = -0.16 ± 0.08 and has a radius R∗= 0.716 ± 0.024 R⊙ and mass M∗= 0.775 ± 0.027 M⊙. The star was observed by the Kepler spacecraft during its Two-Wheeled Concept Engineering Test in 2014 February. During the 9 days of observations, K2 observed a single transit event. Using a new K2 photometric analysis technique, we are able to correct small telescope drifts and recover the observed transit at high confidence, corresponding to a planetary radius of Rp = 2.53 ± 0.18 R⊕. Radial velocity observations with the HARPS-N spectrograph reveal a 11.82 ± 1.33 M⊕ planet in a 9.1 day orbit, consistent with the transit depth, duration, and ephemeris. Follow-up photometric measurements from the MOST satellite confirm the transit observed in the K2 photometry and provide a refined ephemeris, making HIP 116454 b amenable for future follow-up observations of this latest addition to the growing population of transiting super-Earths around nearby, bright stars. ©2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

Bonomo A.S.,National institute for astrophysics | Sozzetti A.,National institute for astrophysics | Lovis C.,Observatoire de Geneva | Malavolta L.,University of Padua | And 36 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

We characterize the planetary system Kepler-101 by performing a combined differential evolution Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis of Kepler data and forty radial velocities obtained with the HARPS-N spectrograph. This system was previously validated and is composed of a hot super-Neptune, Kepler-101b, and an Earth-sized planet, Kepler-101c. These two planets orbit the slightly evolved and metal-rich G-type star in 3.49 and 6.03 days, respectively. With mass Mp = 51.1-4.7 + 5.1 M⊕, radius Rp = 5.77-0.79 + 0.85 R⊕, and density ρp = 1.45-0.48 + 0.83 g cm-3, Kepler-101b is the first fully characterized super-Neptune, and its density suggests that heavy elements make up a significant fraction of its interior; more than 60% of its total mass. Kepler-101c has a radius of 1.25-0.17 + 0.19 R⊕, which implies the absence of any H/He envelope, but its mass could not be determined because of the relative faintness of the parent star for highly precise radial-velocity measurements (Kp = 13.8) and the limited number of radial velocities. The 1σ upper limit, Mp< 3.8 M⊕, excludes a pure iron composition with a probability of 68.3%. The architecture of the planetary system Kepler-101 - containing a close-in giant planet and an outer Earth-sized planet with a period ratio slightly larger than the 3:2 resonance - is certainly of interest for scenarios of planet formation and evolution. This system does not follow thepreviously reported trend that the larger planet has the longer period in the majority of Kepler systems of planet pairs with at least one Neptune-sized or larger planet. © 2014 ESO. Source

Gettel S.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Charbonneau D.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Dressing C.D.,Harvard - Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics | Dressing C.D.,California Institute of Technology | And 58 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2016

Kepler-454 (KOI-273) is a relatively bright (V = 11.69 mag), Sun-like star that hosts a transiting planet candidate in a 10.6 day orbit. From spectroscopy, we estimate the stellar temperature to be 5687 ± 50 K, its metallicity to be [m/H] = 0.32 ± 0.08, and the projected rotational velocity to be v sin i < 2.4 km s-1. We combine these values with a study of the asteroseismic frequencies from short cadence Kepler data to estimate the stellar mass to be , the radius to be 1.066 ± 0.012 Ro, and the age to be Gyr. We estimate the radius of the 10.6 day planet as 2.37 ± 0.13 R⊕. Using 63 radial velocity observations obtained with the HARPS-N spectrograph on the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo and 36 observations made with the HIRES spectrograph at the Keck Observatory, we measure the mass of this planet to be 6.8 ± 1.4 M⊕. We also detect two additional non-transiting companions, a planet with a minimum mass of 4.46 ± 0.12 MJ in a nearly circular 524 day orbit and a massive companion with a period >10 years and mass >12.1 MJ. The 12 exoplanets with radii <2.7 R⊕ and precise mass measurements appear to fall into two populations, with those <1.6 R⊕ following an Earth-like composition curve and larger planets requiring a significant fraction of volatiles. With a density of 2.76 ± 0.73 g cm-3, Kepler-454b lies near the mass transition between these two populations and requires the presence of volatiles and/or H/He gas. © 2016. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Source

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