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Bilbao, Spain

Nutritional studies including food and beverage consumption assessment are needed for different purposes in the field of nutrition, food supply monitoring, toxicology or in the context of intervention strategies that include changes in eating behaviors. Different methods have been used, each with strengths, weaknesses, biases and limitations that must be considered when choosing the most appropriate in each case. The development of new technologies offers exciting developments to improve the validity and accuracy of these methods, as well as their efficiency and commodity. The characteristics of the individuals under study, its environment and the resources available should be considered as well. © 2015, Grupo Aula Medica S.A. All rights reserved.

The results and conclusions of well design nutrition studies, using the appropriate methods to achieve the intended aims with the best validity and precision possible are of great value for nutritional, food and toxicological surveillance systems; also in the planning, follow-up and evaluation of nutrition and health policies and providing high value information for the formulation of recommended reference intakes, nutritional objectives and food based dietary guidelines. © 2015, Grupo Aula Medica S.A. All rights reserved.

Ortega R.M.,Complutense University of Madrid | Perez-Rodrigo C.,Fundacion FIDEC | Lopez-Sobaler A.M.,Complutense University of Madrid
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2015

Dietary records or food diaries can be highlighted among dietary assessment methods of the current diet for their interest and validity. It is a prospective, open-ended survey method collecting data about the foods and beverages consumed over a previously specified period of time. Dietary records can be used to estimate current diet of individuals and population groups, as well as to identify groups at risk of inadequacy. It is a dietary assessment method interesting for its use in epidemiological or in clinical studies. High validity and precision has been reported for the method when used following adequate procedures and considering the sufficient number of days. Thus, dietary records are often considered as a reference method in validation studies. Nevertheless, the method is affected by error and has limitations due mainly to the tendency of subjects to report food consumption close to those socially desirable. Additional problems are related to the high burden posed on respondents. The method can also influence food behavior in respondents in order to simplify the registration of food intake and some subjects can experience difficulties in writing down the foods and beverages consumed or in describing the portion sizes. Increasing the number of days observed reduces the quality of completed diet records. It should also be considered the high cost of coding and processing information collected in diet records. One of the main advantages of the method is the registration of the foods and beverages as consumed, thus reducing the problem of food omissions due to memory failure. Weighted food records provide more precise estimates of consumed portions. New Technologies can be helpful to improve and ease collaboration of respondents, as well as precision of the estimates, although it would be desirable to evaluate the advantages and limitations in order to optimize the implementation. © 2015, Grupo Aula Medica S.A. All rights reserved.

Fagundez L.J.M.,Sociedad Andaluza de Nutricion Clinica y Dietetica | Torres A.R.,Sociedad Andaluza de Nutricion Clinica y Dietetica | Sanchez M.E.G.,Sociedad Andaluza de Nutricion Clinica y Dietetica | de Torres Aured M.L.,Hospital Universitario Miguel Servet | Rodrigo C.P.,Fundacion FIDEC
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2015

The diet history is a traditional method of analysis of food intake. In its traditional structure consists of three components that provide an overall information of the usual food consumption pattern of the individual and also detailed information on certain foods. The information is collected in an interview and requires highly experienced qualified interviewers. The quality of information depends largely on the skills of the interviewer. It is mostly used in clinical practice. It has also been used in studies of diet and health relationship to investigate the usual diet in the past. The high cost and long duration of the interview limit their usefulness in large epidemiological studies. © 2015, Grupo Aula Medica S.A. All rights reserved.

Rodrigo C.P.,Fundacion FIDEC | Aranceta J.,University of Navarra | Salvador G.,Agencia de Salud Publica de Catalonia | Varela-Moreiras G.,University of San Pablo - CEU
Nutricion Hospitalaria | Year: 2015

Food Frequency Questionnaires are dietary assessment tools widely used in epidemiological studies investigating the relationship between dietary intake and disease or risk factors since the early ‘90s. The three main components of these questionnaires are the list of foods, frequency of consumption and the portion size consumed. The food list should reflect the food habits of the study population at the time the data is collected. The frequency of consumption may be asked by open ended questions or by presenting frequency categories. Qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaires do not ask about the consumed portions; semi-quantitative include standard portions and quantitative questionnaires ask respondents to estimate the portion size consumed either in household measures or grams. The latter implies a greater participant burden. Some versions include only close-ended questions in a standardized format, while others add an open section with questions about some specific food habits and practices and admit additions to the food list for foods and beverages consumed which are not included. The method can be self-administered, on paper or web-based, or interview administered either face-to-face or by telephone. Due to the standard format, especially closed-ended versions, and method of administration, FFQs are highly cost-effective thus encouraging its widespread use in large scale epidemiological cohort studies and also in other study designs. Coding and processing data collected is also less costly and requires less nutrition expertise compared to other dietary intake assessment methods. However, the main limitations are systematic errors and biases in estimates. Important efforts are being developed to improve the quality of the information. It has been recommended the use of FFQs with other methods thus enabling the adjustments required. © 2015, Grupo Aula Medica S.A. All rights reserved.

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