Fundacion de Investigaciones Cientificas Teresa Benedicta de la Cruz

Luján, Argentina

Fundacion de Investigaciones Cientificas Teresa Benedicta de la Cruz

Luján, Argentina

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Garrido C.E.,Fundacion de Investigaciones Cientificas Teresa Benedicta de la Cruz | Gonzalez H.H.L.,CONICET | Gonzalez H.H.L.,University of Buenos Aires | Salas M.P.,University of Buenos Aires | And 2 more authors.
Mycotoxin Research | Year: 2013

A total of 89 freshly harvested soybean seed samples (Roundup Ready [transgenic] soybean cultivars) from the 2010/2011 crop season were collected from five locations in the Northern Pampean Region II, Argentina. These samples were analyzed for internal mycoflora, toxin production of isolated fungi, and for a range of mycotoxins. Mycotoxin analysis of aflatoxins (AFs), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FBs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was done by HPLC-FLD (high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization), alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether with HPLC-UV (HPLC with UV detection), trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, fusarenon X, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol were analyzed by GC-ECD (gas chromatography with electron capture detector). Fungal colonization was more frequently found for samples from América, Saladillo and Trenque Lauquen than for samples from General Villegas and Trenel; a total of 1,401 fungal isolates were obtained from the soybean seeds. The most commonly identified fungal genera were Alternaria, Sclerotinia, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phomopsis and Fusarium. Alternaria alternata, A.tenuissima, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium citrinum, Fusarium verticillioides and F.semitectum were the predominant toxigenic fungal species. Mycotoxin production was confirmed for several isolates of toxigenic species, including Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, Alternaria alternata, A.tenuissima, Fusarium graminearum, F semitectum and F. verticillioides. In particular, the percentage of mycotoxigenic Alternaria alternata (100 %), A.tenuissima (95 %) and aflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus (57 %) were remarkably high. Although none of the mycotoxins, AFs, ZEA, FBs, trichothecenes and OTA, were directly detected in samples of soybean seeds, the frequent presence of toxigenic fungal species indicates the risk of multiple mycotoxin contamination. © 2013 Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Garrido C.E.,Agencia Nacional de Promocion Cientifica y Tecnologica | Hernandez Pezzani C.,National University of Luján | Pacin A.,Fundacion de Investigaciones Cientificas Teresa Benedicta de la Cruz | Pacin A.,National University of Luján
Food Control | Year: 2012

The natural occurrence of mycotoxins in maize in Argentina, from 1999 to 2010 was analysed. Total aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, were detected and quantified by TLC. Each aflatoxins and fumonisins was quantified by HPLC. A total of 3246 samples for freshly harvested (1655) and storage (1591) was obtained from different regions, from 1999 to 2010. Except for 2003 year in harvest, and for 2007 in storage, aflatoxins levels were low. Average values of aflatoxin B1 for freshly harvested samples were between 0.38 and 2.54μgkg-1 and for storage samples were between 0.22 and 4.5μgkg-1. The average values and frequency of contamination for zearalenone and deoxynivalenol, were low for all years. The average zearalenone contamination in samples of freshly harvested, showed values from no detected up to 83μgkg-1, and in storage samples, from no detected to 17μgkg-1. The average deoxynivalenol contamination of freshly harvested, showed values from no detected up to 140μgkg-1, and for storage samples showed values from no detected to 14μgkg-1. The percentage of maize samples contaminated by fumonisins was between 90 and 100% for all years studied; the average levels were from 1773 to 9093μgkg-1 for freshly harvested maize and for storage from 2525 to 11,528μgkg-1.Co-occurrence of aflatoxins and fumonisin was the most frequent (8.4%), followed by zearalenone and fumonisins (2%). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Salas M.P.,University of Buenos Aires | Pok P.S.,University of Buenos Aires | Resnik S.L.,University of Buenos Aires | Pacin A.,Fundacion de Investigaciones Cientificas Teresa Benedicta de la Cruz | Munitz M.,National University of Entre Rios
Food Control | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to analyze the possible utilization of flavanones obtained as by-products of the citrus industry, naringin (NAR), hesperidin (HES) and neohesperidin (NEO), to inhibit the production of aflatoxins (AFs) from Aspergillus flavus. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize experimental conditions in terms of the different flavanones concentrations used. Through this methodology these optimal combinations were calculated: HES-NAR: 0.206-0.037 mM, HES-NEO: 0.156-0.283 mM and NAR-NEO: 0.035-0.195 mM. The theoretical concentrations obtained by RSM were assayed, achieving total inhibition of AFB1 and AFB2 production. Moreover, the use of these flavanones, obtained at low cost from the residues of citric industry, presents an interesting option for improving the profitability of these industries. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Broggi L.,National University of Entre Rios | Reynoso C.,University of Buenos Aires | Resnik S.,National University of Central Buenos Aires | Martinez F.,National University of Entre Rios | And 2 more authors.
Mycotoxin Research | Year: 2013

One hundred and eighty five samples of red, white and rosé wines and different juices purchased in Entre Rios, Argentina, were analyzed for the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol methyl ether (AME). White wines were analyzed after removal of alcohol by a nitrogen stream and concentrated. AOH in red wines was cleaned up by solid-phase extraction columns in series (octadecyl and amino propyl modified silica) and AME quantified directly on the sample. The juices were filtered and concentrated, and then all sample extracts were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector that allows confirmation through UV spectra. Method validation revealed a good sensitivity with adequate LOD and LOQ for AME and less sensitivity for AOH (i.e. white wine: AME 0.8 and 1.4 ng/mL, AOH 2 and 3.3 ng/mL; red wine: AME 0.1 and 0.2 ng/mL, AOH 4.5 and 7.5 ng/mL; apple juice: AME 1.7 and 2.8 ng/mL, AOH 5 and 9 ng/mL; other juices: AME 2.0 and 3.1 ng/mL, AOH 6 and 10 ng/mL). Recoveries in all cases were greater than 80 %. Four of 53 white wine samples were contaminated with AOH with a maximum level of 18 ng/mL, 6 of 56 samples of red wine had a maximum of 13 ng/mL, and 3 of 68 samples of juices had traces of AOH. AME was less frequently detected than AOH, and the LOD and LOQ for AME are smaller than for AOH. Only three samples of white wine and one of red wine were contaminated, but in only one white wine sample (AME 225 ng/mL) did the toxin level exceed the LOQ. © 2012 Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Munitz M.S.,National University of Entre Rios | Resnik S.L.,University of Buenos Aires | Resnik S.L.,National University of Central Buenos Aires | Pacin A.,Fundacion de Investigaciones Cientificas Teresa Benedicta de la Cruz | And 6 more authors.
Mycotoxin Research | Year: 2014

Alternaria alternata, A. tenuissima, Fusarium graminearum, F. semitectum, F. verticillioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus section Nigri strains obtained from blueberries during the 2009 and 2010 harvest season from Entre Ríos, Argentina were analyzed to determine their mycotoxigenic potential. Taxonomy status at the specific level was determined both on morphological and molecular grounds. Alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), aflatoxins (AFs), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FBs), and ochratoxin A (OTA) were analyzed by HPLC and the trichotecenes deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), HT-2 toxin (HT-2), T-2 toxin (T-2), fusarenone X (FUS-X), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-AcDON), and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-AcDON) by GC. Twenty-five out of forty two strains were able to produce some of the mycotoxins analyzed. Fifteen strains of Aspergillus section Nigri were capable of producing Fumonisin B1 (FB1); two of them also produced Fumonisin B2 (FB2) and one Fumonisin B3 (FB3). One of the F. graminearum isolated produced ZEA, HT-2, and T-2 and the other one was capable of producing ZEA and DON. Two A. alternata isolates produced AOH and AME. Four A. tenuissima were capable of producing AOH and three of them produced AME as well. One Aspergillu flavus strain produced aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1). To our knowledge, this is the first report showing mycotoxigenic capacity of fungal species isolated from blueberries that include other fungi than Alternaria spp. © 2014, Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Garcia Londono V.A.,University of Buenos Aires | Boasso A.C.,University of Buenos Aires | de Paula M.C.Z.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Garcia L.P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 4 more authors.
Food Control | Year: 2013

Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), the main monohydroxylated of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) formed in liver and excreted in the milk, has toxicological proprieties comparable to those of AFB1, albeit a lower carcinogenic potency. The presence of AFM1 was investigated in 30 samples of powdered milk purchased in Argentina and Brazil. The samples were analyzed using an immunoaffinity column for cleanup and HPLC-FLD for determining AFM1. The quantification limit was 0.1μg/kg. AFM1 was found in all the samples at levels ranging from 0.1 to 0.92μgkg-1 with average concentration of 0.39μgkg-1. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Castellari C.C.,University of Buenos Aires | Cendoya M.G.,University of Buenos Aires | Marcos Valle F.J.,University of Buenos Aires | Barrera V.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Pacin A.M.,Fundacion de Investigaciones Cientificas Teresa Benedicta de la Cruz
Revista Argentina de Microbiologia | Year: 2015

In order to determine the behavior of mycotoxin-producing fungal populations lin-ked with silobags stored corn grains with a moisture content greater at the recommended assafe, 270 samples taken in three times (beginning, 90 days, final) over a five month periodof storage were evaluated. The fungal biota was quantified and identified and the contami-nation with fumonisin and aflatoxin was determined. Extrinsic factors (environment), intrinsicfactors (grains) and technological factors (location of the grains in the profile of silobag) weretaken into account to evaluate the presence and quantity of total and mycotoxigenic fungalpopulations. The pH of grains and O2 levels were significantly reduced after five months, while CO2 concentration increased in the same period. The total counts of mycobiota were signifi-cantly higher in grains located in the top layer of silobag. Mycotoxigenic species of Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Eurotium were identified. The frequency of isolation of Fusariumverticillioides decreased at the end of storage and Aspergillus flavus was isolated only at thebeginning of storage. The counts of the Penicillium spp. and Eurotium spp. were increased atthe end of storage. Fumonisin contamination was found in all the samples (100 %) with maxi-mum levels of 5.707 mg/kg whereas aflatoxin contaminated only 40 % with maximum levels of0.0008 mg/kg. The environmental and substrate conditions generated during the storage limitedthe development of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxin production. © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.


Vanesa D.,Fundacion de Investigaciones Cientificas Teresa Benedicta de la Cruz | Ana P.,Fundacion de Investigaciones Cientificas Teresa Benedicta de la Cruz
Food Control | Year: 2013

The purpose of this work was to determine the occurrence of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in coffee beans, ground roasted coffee and soluble coffee, which is imported by Argentina and manufactured in this country and also to perform a single laboratory validation for the analysis of OTA. Validation was done with certified reference material and with spiked samples. Certified material showed 104% of toxin recovery in the case of roasted coffee and 100% for green coffee. Spiked samples with levels from 1.98 to 10.18 μg/kg for soluble coffee had an average recovery rate of 79.4%. The limits of detection and quantification in coffee were 0.02 μg/kg and 0.05 μg/kg respectively. A good correlation (r = 0.9989) was found for this method. Fifty one samples were investigated to determine the presence of OTA, extracted by Ochraprep® immunoaffinity columns for cleaning up and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that a high percentage (69%) of the coffee was contaminated with OTA at different levels. The median obtained for green coffee was 2.7 μg/kg, for ground roasted coffee was 0.24 μg/kg and 0.43 μg/kg for soluble coffee. A possible exposure assessment was evaluated. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | University of Buenos Aires, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria and Fundacion de Investigaciones Cientificas Teresa Benedicta de la Cruz
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista Argentina de microbiologia | Year: 2016

In order to determine the behavior of mycotoxin-producing fungal populations linked with silobags stored corn grains with a moisture content greater at the recommended as safe, 270 samples taken in three times (beginning, 90 days, final) over a five month period of storage were evaluated. The fungal biota was quantified and identified and the contamination with fumonisin and aflatoxin was determined. Extrinsic factors (environment), intrinsic factors (grains) and technological factors (location of the grains in the profile of silobag) were taken into account to evaluate the presence and quantity of total and mycotoxigenic fungal populations. The pH of grains and O2 levels were significantly reduced after five months, while CO2 concentration increased in the same period. The total counts of mycobiota were significantly higher in grains located in the top layer of silobag. Mycotoxigenic species of Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Eurotium were identified. The frequency of isolation of Fusarium verticillioides decreased at the end of storage and Aspergillus flavus was isolated only at the beginning of storage. The counts of the Penicillium spp. and Eurotium spp. were increased at the end of storage. Fumonisin contamination was found in all the samples (100%) with maximum levels of 5.707mg/kg whereas aflatoxin contaminated only 40% with maximum levels of 0.0008mg/kg. The environmental and substrate conditions generated during the storage limited the development of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxin production.


PubMed | Fundacion de Investigaciones Cientificas Teresa Benedicta de la Cruz
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Mycotoxin research | Year: 2013

A total of 89 freshly harvested soybean seed samples (Roundup Ready [transgenic] soybean cultivars) from the 2010/2011 crop season were collected from five locations in the Northern Pampean Region II, Argentina. These samples were analyzed for internal mycoflora, toxin production of isolated fungi, and for a range of mycotoxins. Mycotoxin analysis of aflatoxins (AFs), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FBs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was done by HPLC-FLD (high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization), alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether with HPLC-UV (HPLC with UV detection), trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, fusarenon X, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol were analyzed by GC-ECD (gas chromatography with electron capture detector). Fungal colonization was more frequently found for samples from Amrica, Saladillo and Trenque Lauquen than for samples from General Villegas and Trenel; a total of 1,401 fungal isolates were obtained from the soybean seeds. The most commonly identified fungal genera were Alternaria, Sclerotinia, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phomopsis and Fusarium. Alternaria alternata, A.tenuissima, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium citrinum, Fusarium verticillioides and F.semitectum were the predominant toxigenic fungal species. Mycotoxin production was confirmed for several isolates of toxigenic species, including Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, Alternaria alternata, A.tenuissima, Fusarium graminearum, F semitectum and F. verticillioides. In particular, the percentage of mycotoxigenic Alternaria alternata (100%), A.tenuissima (95%) and aflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus (57%) were remarkably high. Although none of the mycotoxins, AFs, ZEA, FBs, trichothecenes and OTA, were directly detected in samples of soybean seeds, the frequent presence of toxigenic fungal species indicates the risk of multiple mycotoxin contamination.

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