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Pacin A.M.,Fundacion de Investigaciones Cientificas Teresa Benedicta de la Cruz | Pacin A.M.,National University of Lujan | Resnik S.L.,National University of Central Buenos Aires | Resnik S.L.,University of Buenos Aires | Martinez E.J.,University of Buenos Aires
Food Additives and Contaminants: Part B Surveillance

The aim of this work was to determine deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination in wheat-based food products in Argentina and to estimate DON exposure. The numbers of samples were determined according to a developed sampling plan. A total of 156 samples of different wheat products were randomly collected from food markets in Luján, Argentina, and analyzed for DON by gas chromatography. DON contamination ranged 7-271 ng g-1 for French bread, 5-149 ng g-1 for Vienna bread, 11-85 ng g-1 for crackers, 8-85 ng g-1 for pizza, and was 79 ng g-1 for noodles. The maximum contribution to DON intake was 7% of the PMTDI for French bread; the minimum was less than 1% for noodles. Assuming all groups had eaten all sampled foods and summing all groups' intake contribution, the highest estimate DON exposure would only be<14% (for the 18-24-year old men group) of the DON daily dietary intake. © 2011 Taylor & Francis. Source

Salas M.P.,University of Buenos Aires | Pok P.S.,University of Buenos Aires | Resnik S.L.,University of Buenos Aires | Pacin A.,Fundacion de Investigaciones Cientificas Teresa Benedicta de la Cruz | Munitz M.,National University of Entre Rios
Food Control

The aim of this study was to analyze the possible utilization of flavanones obtained as by-products of the citrus industry, naringin (NAR), hesperidin (HES) and neohesperidin (NEO), to inhibit the production of aflatoxins (AFs) from Aspergillus flavus. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize experimental conditions in terms of the different flavanones concentrations used. Through this methodology these optimal combinations were calculated: HES-NAR: 0.206-0.037 mM, HES-NEO: 0.156-0.283 mM and NAR-NEO: 0.035-0.195 mM. The theoretical concentrations obtained by RSM were assayed, achieving total inhibition of AFB1 and AFB2 production. Moreover, the use of these flavanones, obtained at low cost from the residues of citric industry, presents an interesting option for improving the profitability of these industries. © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Source

Broggi L.,National University of Entre Rios | Reynoso C.,University of Buenos Aires | Resnik S.,National University of Central Buenos Aires | Martinez F.,National University of Entre Rios | And 2 more authors.
Mycotoxin Research

One hundred and eighty five samples of red, white and rosé wines and different juices purchased in Entre Rios, Argentina, were analyzed for the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol (AOH) and alternariol methyl ether (AME). White wines were analyzed after removal of alcohol by a nitrogen stream and concentrated. AOH in red wines was cleaned up by solid-phase extraction columns in series (octadecyl and amino propyl modified silica) and AME quantified directly on the sample. The juices were filtered and concentrated, and then all sample extracts were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector that allows confirmation through UV spectra. Method validation revealed a good sensitivity with adequate LOD and LOQ for AME and less sensitivity for AOH (i.e. white wine: AME 0.8 and 1.4 ng/mL, AOH 2 and 3.3 ng/mL; red wine: AME 0.1 and 0.2 ng/mL, AOH 4.5 and 7.5 ng/mL; apple juice: AME 1.7 and 2.8 ng/mL, AOH 5 and 9 ng/mL; other juices: AME 2.0 and 3.1 ng/mL, AOH 6 and 10 ng/mL). Recoveries in all cases were greater than 80 %. Four of 53 white wine samples were contaminated with AOH with a maximum level of 18 ng/mL, 6 of 56 samples of red wine had a maximum of 13 ng/mL, and 3 of 68 samples of juices had traces of AOH. AME was less frequently detected than AOH, and the LOD and LOQ for AME are smaller than for AOH. Only three samples of white wine and one of red wine were contaminated, but in only one white wine sample (AME 225 ng/mL) did the toxin level exceed the LOQ. © 2012 Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Castellari C.C.,University of Buenos Aires | Cendoya M.G.,University of Buenos Aires | Marcos Valle F.J.,University of Buenos Aires | Barrera V.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Pacin A.M.,Fundacion de Investigaciones Cientificas Teresa Benedicta de la Cruz
Revista Argentina de Microbiologia

In order to determine the behavior of mycotoxin-producing fungal populations lin-ked with silobags stored corn grains with a moisture content greater at the recommended assafe, 270 samples taken in three times (beginning, 90 days, final) over a five month periodof storage were evaluated. The fungal biota was quantified and identified and the contami-nation with fumonisin and aflatoxin was determined. Extrinsic factors (environment), intrinsicfactors (grains) and technological factors (location of the grains in the profile of silobag) weretaken into account to evaluate the presence and quantity of total and mycotoxigenic fungalpopulations. The pH of grains and O2 levels were significantly reduced after five months, while CO2 concentration increased in the same period. The total counts of mycobiota were signifi-cantly higher in grains located in the top layer of silobag. Mycotoxigenic species of Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Eurotium were identified. The frequency of isolation of Fusariumverticillioides decreased at the end of storage and Aspergillus flavus was isolated only at thebeginning of storage. The counts of the Penicillium spp. and Eurotium spp. were increased atthe end of storage. Fumonisin contamination was found in all the samples (100 %) with maxi-mum levels of 5.707 mg/kg whereas aflatoxin contaminated only 40 % with maximum levels of0.0008 mg/kg. The environmental and substrate conditions generated during the storage limitedthe development of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxin production. © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. Source

Garrido C.E.,Fundacion de Investigaciones Cientificas Teresa Benedicta de la Cruz | Gonzalez H.H.L.,CONICET | Gonzalez H.H.L.,University of Buenos Aires | Salas M.P.,University of Buenos Aires | And 2 more authors.
Mycotoxin Research

A total of 89 freshly harvested soybean seed samples (Roundup Ready [transgenic] soybean cultivars) from the 2010/2011 crop season were collected from five locations in the Northern Pampean Region II, Argentina. These samples were analyzed for internal mycoflora, toxin production of isolated fungi, and for a range of mycotoxins. Mycotoxin analysis of aflatoxins (AFs), zearalenone (ZEA), fumonisins (FBs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was done by HPLC-FLD (high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization), alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether with HPLC-UV (HPLC with UV detection), trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, fusarenon X, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol were analyzed by GC-ECD (gas chromatography with electron capture detector). Fungal colonization was more frequently found for samples from América, Saladillo and Trenque Lauquen than for samples from General Villegas and Trenel; a total of 1,401 fungal isolates were obtained from the soybean seeds. The most commonly identified fungal genera were Alternaria, Sclerotinia, Chaetomium, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Phomopsis and Fusarium. Alternaria alternata, A.tenuissima, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium citrinum, Fusarium verticillioides and F.semitectum were the predominant toxigenic fungal species. Mycotoxin production was confirmed for several isolates of toxigenic species, including Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, Alternaria alternata, A.tenuissima, Fusarium graminearum, F semitectum and F. verticillioides. In particular, the percentage of mycotoxigenic Alternaria alternata (100 %), A.tenuissima (95 %) and aflatoxigenic strains of A. flavus (57 %) were remarkably high. Although none of the mycotoxins, AFs, ZEA, FBs, trichothecenes and OTA, were directly detected in samples of soybean seeds, the frequent presence of toxigenic fungal species indicates the risk of multiple mycotoxin contamination. © 2013 Society for Mycotoxin Research and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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