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Elio J.,Fundacion Ciudad de la Energia CIUDEN | Ortega M.F.,Technical University of Madrid | Chacon E.,Technical University of Madrid | Mazadiego L.F.,Technical University of Madrid | Grandia F.,Amphos XXI
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2012

Fundación Ciudad de la Energía (CIUDEN) is carrying out a project of geological storage of CO 2, where CO 2 injection tests are planned in saline aquifers at a depth of 1500m for scientific objectives and project demonstration. Before any CO 2 is stored, it is necessary to determine the baseline flux of CO 2 in order to detect potential leakage during injection and post-injection monitoring.In November 2009 diffuse flux measurements of CO 2 using an accumulation chamber were made in the area selected by CIUDEN for geological storage, located in Hontomin province of Burgos (Spain). This paper presents the tests carried out in order to establish the optimum sampling methodology and the geostatistical analyses performed to determine the range, with which future field campaigns will be planned. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Elio J.,Fundacion Ciudad de la Energia CIUDEN | Elio J.,Technical University of Madrid | Nisi B.,CNR Institute of Geosciences and Earth Resources | Ortega M.F.,Technical University of Madrid | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2013

From the end of 2013 and during the following two years, 20kt of CO2sc are planned to be injected in a saline reservoir (1500m depth) at the Hontomín site (NE Spain). The target aquifers are Lower Jurassic limestone formations which are sealed by Lower Cretaceous clay units at the Hontomín site (NE Spain). The injection of CO2 is part of the activities committed in the Technology Development phase of the EC-funded OXYCFB300 project (European Energy Program for Recovery - EEPR, http://www.compostillaproject.eu), which include CO2 injection strategies, risk assessment, and testing and validating monitoring methodologies and techniques.Among the monitoring works, the project is intended to prove that present-day technology is able to monitor the evolution of injected CO2 in the reservoir and to detect potential leakage. One of the techniques is the measurement of CO2 flux at the soil-atmosphere interface, which includes campaigns before, during and after the injection operations.In this work soil CO2 flux measurements in the vicinity of oil borehole, drilled in the eighties and named H-1 to H-4, and injection and monitoring wells were performed using an accumulation chamber equipped with an IR sensor. Seven surveys were carried out from November 2009 to summer 2011. More than 4000 measurements were used to determine the baseline flux of CO2 and its seasonal variations.The measured values were low (from 5 to 13gm-2day-1) and few outliers were identified, mainly located close to the H-2 oil well. Nevertheless, these values cannot be associated to a deep source of CO2, being more likely related to biological processes, i.e. soil respiration. No anomalies were recognized close to the deep fault system (Ubierna Fault) detected by geophysical investigations. There, the CO2 flux is indeed as low as other measurement stations. CO2 fluxes appear to be controlled by the biological activity since the lowest values were recorded during autumn-winter seasons and they tend to increase in warm periods. Two reference CO2 flux values (UCL50 of 5gm-2d-1 for non-ploughed areas in autumn-winter seasons and 3.5 and 12gm-2d-1 for in ploughed and non-ploughed areas, respectively, in spring-summer time, and UCL99 of 26gm-2d-1 for autumn-winter in not-ploughed areas and 34 and 42gm-2d-1 for spring-summer in ploughed and not-ploughed areas, respectively) were calculated. Fluxes higher than these reference values could be indicative of possible leakage during the operational and post-closure stages of the storage project. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Martinez-Landa L.,University of Barcelona | Rotting T.S.,University of Barcelona | Rotting T.S.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Carrera J.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2013

Estimating long term capillary trapping of CO2 in aquifers remains a key challenge for CO2 storage. Zhang et al. (2011) proposed a combination of thermal, tracer, and hydraulic experiments to estimate the amount of CO2 trapped in the formation after a CO2 push and pull test. Of these three types of experiments, hydraulic tests are the simplest to perform and possibly the most informative. However, their potential has not yet been fully exploited. Here, we present a methodology to interpret these tests and analyze which parameters can be estimated. We use numerical and analytical solutions to a continuous injection in a medium where residual CO2 has caused a reduction in hydraulic conductivity and an increase in storage coefficient over a finite thickness (a few meters) skin around the injection well. We interpret the model results using conventional pressure buildup and diagnostic plots as well as the Agarwal (1980) recovery plots. We find that both skin hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient (and thus residual CO2 saturation) can be obtained from the water injection test provided that water flow rate is carefully controlled and head buildup is measured with high frequency at the beginning of the test. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Gomez M.,Fundacion Ciudad de la Energia CIUDEN | Fernandez A.,Fundacion Ciudad de la Energia CIUDEN | Llavona I.,Fundacion Ciudad de la Energia CIUDEN | Kuivalainen R.,Amec Foster Wheeler
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2014

CO2 and SO2 from fossil fuel combustion are contributors to greenhouse effect and acid rain respectively. Oxy-combustion technology produces a highly concentrated CO2 stream almost ready for capture. Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler technology allows in-situ injection of calcium-based sorbents for efficient SO2 capture. CIUDEN's 30 MWth CFB boiler, supplied by Foster Wheeler and located at the Technology Development Centre for CO2 Capture and Transport (es.CO2) in Spain, is the first of its kind for executing test runs at large pilot scale under both air-combustion and oxy-combustion conditions. In this work, SO2 emissions under different scenarios have been evaluated. Variables such as limestone composition, Ca/S molar ratio and bed temperature among others have been considered along different test runs in both air-combustion and oxy-combustion conditions to analyse its influence on SO 2 abatement. Fly and bottom ash, together with flue gas analysis have been carried-out. Desulphurization performance tests results are presented. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Gomez M.,Fundacion Ciudad de la Energia CIUDEN | Fernandez A.,Fundacion Ciudad de la Energia CIUDEN | Llavona I.,Fundacion Ciudad de la Energia CIUDEN | Kuivalainen R.,Amec Foster Wheeler
Applied Thermal Engineering | Year: 2015

CO2 and SO2 from fossil fuel combustion are contributors to greenhouse effect and acid rain respectively. Oxy-combustion technology produces a highly concentrated CO2 stream almost ready for capture. Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler technology allows in-situ injection of calcium-based sorbents for efficient SO2 capture. CIUDEN's 30 MWth CFB boiler, supplied by Foster Wheeler and located at the Technology Development Centre for CO2 Capture and Transport (es.CO2) in Spain, is the first of its kind for executing test runs at large pilot scale under both air-combustion and oxy-combustion conditions. In this work, SO2 emissions under different scenarios have been evaluated. Variables such as limestone composition, Ca/S molar ratio and bed temperature among others have been considered along different test runs in both air-combustion and oxy-combustion conditions to analyse its influence on SO2 abatement. Fly and bottom ash, together with flue gas analysis have been carried-out. Desulphurization performance tests results are presented. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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