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Santiago, Chile

Niechi I.,University of Chile | Silva E.,University of Chile | Cabello P.,University of Chile | Huerta H.,University of Chile | And 8 more authors.

Endothelin-converting enzyme-1c (ECE-1c) is a membrane metalloprotease involved in endothelin-1 synthesis, which has been shown in vitro to have a role in breast, ovary and prostate cancer cell invasion. N-terminal end of ECE-1c displays three putative phosphorylation sites for the protein kinase CK2. We studied whether CK2 phosphorylates N-terminal end of ECE-1c as well as whether this has a role in migration and invasion of colon cancer cells. CK2 phosphorylated the N-terminal end of ECE-1c and this was precluded upon inhibition of CK2. Inhibition also led to diminished protein levels of both endogen ECE-1 or GFP-fused N-terminal end of ECE-1c in 293T embryonic and DLD-1 colon cancer cells, which highlighted the importance of this motif on UPS-dependent ECE-1c degradation. Full-length ECE-1c mutants designed either to mimic or abrogate CK2-phosphorylation displayed increased or decreased migration/invasion of colon cancer cells, respectively. Moreover, ECE-1c overexpression or its silencing with a siRNA led to increased or diminished cell migration/invasion, respectively. Altogether, these data show that CK2-increased ECE-1c protein stability is related to augmented migration and invasion of colon cancer cells, shedding light on a novel mechanism by which CK2 may promote malignant progression of this disease. Source

Reyes D.,University of Chile | Salazar L.,University of Chile | Espinoza E.,University of Chile | Pereda C.,University of Chile | And 7 more authors.
British Journal of Cancer

Background:Recently, we produced a tumour antigen-presenting cells (TAPCells) vaccine using a melanoma cell lysate, called TRIMEL, as an antigen source and an activation factor. Tumour antigen-presenting cells induced immunological responses and increased melanoma patient survival. Herein, we investigated the effect of TAPCells loaded with prostate cancer cell lysates (PCCL) as an antigen source, and TRIMEL as a dendritic cell (DC) activation factor; which were co-injected with the Concholepas concholepas haemocyanin (CCH) as an adjuvant on castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients.Methods:The lysate mix capacity, for inducing T-cell activation, was analysed by flow cytometry and Elispot. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction against PCCL, frequency of CD8 + memory T cells (Tm) in blood and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in serum were measured in treated patients.Results:The lysate mix induced functional mature DCs that were capable of activating PCCL-specific T cells. No relevant adverse reactions were observed. Six out of 14 patients showed a significant decrease in levels of PSA. DTH + patients showed a prolonged PSA doubling-time after treatment. Expansion of functional central and effector CD8 + Tm were detected.Conclusion:Treatment of CRPC patients with lysate-loaded TAPCells and CCH as an adjuvant is safe: generating biochemical and memory immune responses. However, the limited number of cases requires confirmation in a phase II clinical trial. © 2013 Cancer Research UK. Source

Michea P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Michea P.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Michea P.,University of Paris Descartes | Vargas P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Immunology

Plasmacytoid pre-dendritic cells (pDCs) are specialized in responding to nucleic acids, and link innate with adaptive immunity. Although the response of pDCs to viruses is well established, whether pDCs can respond to extracellular bacteria remains controversial. Here, we demonstrate that extracellular bacteria such as Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, and Staphylococcus aureus activate pDCs to produce IFN-α, TNF-α, IL-6, and to upregulate CD86 expression. We observed that pDCs were present within tonsillar crypts and oro-nasopharyngeal epithelium, where they may contact extracellular bacteria, in situ. Tonsil epithelium-conditioned supernatants inhibited IFN-α, TNF-α, and IL-6 triggered by the direct contact of N. meningitidis or S. aureus with pDCs. However, pDC priming of naive T cells was not affected, suggesting that tonsil epithelium micro-environment limits local inflammation while preserving adaptive immunity in response to extracellular bacteria. Our results reveal an important and novel function of pDCs in the initiation of the mucosal innate and adaptive immunity to extracellular bacteria. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Alfaro I.E.,University of Santiago de Chile | Alfaro I.E.,University of Valparaiso | Varela-Nallar L.,University of Santiago de Chile | Varela-Nallar L.,Andres Bello University | And 5 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience

Wnt signaling regulates synaptic development and function and contributes to the fine-tuning of the molecular and morphological differentiation of synapses. We have shown previously that Wnt5a activates non-canonical Wnt signaling to stimulate postsynaptic differentiation in excitatory hippocampal neurons promoting the clustering of the postsynaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 and the development of dendritic spines. At least three different kinds of Wnt receptors have been associated with Wnt5a signaling: seven trans-membrane Frizzled receptors and the tyrosine kinase receptors Ryk and ROR2. We report here that ROR2 is distributed in the dendrites of hippocampal neurons in close proximity to synaptic contacts and it is contained in dendritic spine protrusions. We demonstrate that ROR2 is necessary to maintain dendritic spine number and morphological distribution in cultured hippocampal neurons. ROR2 overexpression increased dendritic spine growth without affecting the density of dendritic spine protrusions in a form dependent on its extracellular Wnt binding cysteine rich domain (CRD) and kinase domain. Overexpression of dominant negative ROR2 lacking the extracellular CRD decreased spine density and the proportion of mushroom like spines, while ROR2 lacking the C-terminal and active kinase domains only affected spine morphology. Our results indicate a crucial role of the ROR2 in the formation and maturation of the postsynaptic dendritic spines in hippocampal neurons. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Parodi J.,University of Santiago de Chile | Parodi J.,Catholic University of Temuco | Montecinos-Oliva C.,University of Santiago de Chile | Varas R.,Autonomous University of Chile | And 11 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience

Hippocampal synapses play a key role in memory and learning processes by inducing long-term potentiation and depression. Wnt signaling is essential in the development and maintenance of synapses via several mechanisms. We have previously found that Wnt5a induces the production of nitric oxide (NO), which modulates NMDA receptor expression in the postsynaptic regions of hippocampal neurons. Here, we report that Wnt5a selectively inhibits a voltage-gated K+ current (Kv current) and increases synaptic activity in hippocampal slices. Further supporting a specific role for Wnt5a, the soluble Frizzled receptor protein (sFRP-2; a functional Wnt antagonist) fully inhibits the effects of Wnt5a. We additionally show that these responses to Wnt5a are mediated by activation of a ROR2 receptor and increased NO production because they are suppressed by the shRNA-mediated knockdown of ROR2 and by 7-nitroindazole, a specific inhibitor of neuronal NOS. Together, our results show that Wnt5a increases NO production by acting on ROR2 receptors, which in turn inhibit Kv currents. These results reveal a novel mechanism by which Wnt5a may regulate the excitability of hippocampal neurons. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

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