Pacheco R.,Fundacion Ciencia para la Vida |
Pacheco R.,San Sebastian University |
Riquelme E.,Millennium Nucleus of Immunology and Immunotherapy |
Kalergis A.M.,Millennium Nucleus of Immunology and Immunotherapy |
Kalergis A.M.,University of Santiago de Chile
Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2010
Dendritic cells (DCs) are responsible of priming T cells and promoting their differentiation from naïve T cells into appropriate effector cells. Each different phenotype of effector T cells promotes the elimination of a determined kind of pathogen or tumour. Thus, DCs and T cells play critical roles on orchestrating adaptive immune responses against specific threats. Because of their fundamental functions at controlling immunity, DCs and T cells require tight regulatory mechanisms to ensure efficient, but safe, immune responses. Several studies have shown that neurotransmitters, in addition to mediate interactions into the nervous system, can contribute to the modulation of immunity by promoting the communication between nervous and immune systems and in the interaction between different immune cells. Due to the pivotal role that the DC-T cell interaction plays in the development and regulation of adaptive immune responses, it is important to understand how the function of these cells may be regulated by neurotransmitters. Here, we review the emerging role of neurotransmitters as regulators of DC and T cell physiology and also how these molecules, by acting on the DC-T cell interaction, may modulate the fate of T cells and, therefore, the nature of the adaptive immune response. Moreover, we discuss how alterations on the neurotransmitter-mediated immune regulatory mechanisms can contribute to the onset of immune-related disorders. In addition, we discuss potential new targets for the design of strategies for therapies against tumours, autoimmunity and neuro-immune related diseases. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source
Torres E.,University of Santiago de Chile |
Santibanez C.,University of Santiago de Chile |
Rubio F.,University of Santiago de Chile |
Godoy F.,University of Santiago de Chile |
And 4 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014
Viral infections in grapevines cause physiological disorders that lead to foliar deformations, alterations in the berry color and finally reductions in productivity. Most viral infections in grapevine are disseminated by biological vectors and then by the vegetative propagation of infected material. More than 10 viruses commonly infect the grapevine, and it is not rare to find two or three different viruses in one infected plant. There are no efficient chemical treatments against virus infections. A molecular strategy to induce virus resistance in plants is gene silencing. This strategy requires the transformation of plants with a short sequence of the pathogen in a way that a double-strand RNA structure is formed during transcription, initiating gene silencing in the host. The objective of this work was the induction of virus silencing in grapevine rootstocks in order to use them for grafting. It is expected that the mobile silencing signal would induce virus silencing in the scion. We have transformed rootstocks (110 Richter and Harmony) by co-culturing embryogenic and organogenic tissues with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying a silencing vector containing a sequence of the coat protein of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV). Twenty-six transgenic plants of the 110 Richter rootstock have been recovered, analyzed by RT-PCR for the GFLV sequence, and propagated to obtain several plants of each line. The transgenic rootstocks have been grafted with GFLV-infected plants that were positive for virus presence by RT-PCR analysis. Once the grafts were set, GFLV detection was carried out with scions using primers for the movement protein. After one month the detection of the virus was abolished in the scion, with three of six analyzed rootstock lines. Source
Alvarez F.,Fundacion Ciencia para la Vida |
Munoz F.,Fundacion Ciencia para la Vida |
Schilcher P.,Adolf Butenandt Institute |
Imhof A.,Adolf Butenandt Institute |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011
Much progress has been made concerning histone function in the nucleus; however, following their synthesis, how their marking and subcellular trafficking are regulated remains to be explored. To gain an insight into these issues, we focused on soluble histones and analyzed endogenous and tagged H3 histones in parallel. We distinguished six complexes that we could place to account for maturation events occurring on histones H3 and H4 from their synthesis onward. In each complex, a different set of chaperones is involved, and we found specific post-translational modifications. Interestingly, we revealed that histones H3 and H4 are transiently poly-(ADP-ribosylated). The impact of these marks in histone metabolism proved to be important as we found that acetylation of lysines 5 and 12 on histone H4 stimulated its nuclear translocation. Furthermore, we showed that, depending on particular histone H3 modifications, the balance in the presence of the different translocation complexes changes. Therefore, our results enabled us to propose a regulatory means of these marks for controlling cytoplasmic/nuclear shuttling and the establishment of early modification patterns. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc. Source
Aguayo C.,Fundacion Ciencia para la Vida |
Riquelme J.,Fundacion Ciencia para la Vida |
Valenzuela P.D.T.,Fundacion Ciencia para la Vida |
Valenzuela P.D.T.,University of Chile |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2011
We previously identified Bchex as a highly expressed gene during filamentous growth in Botrytis cinerea. The gene encodes the principal protein of the Woronin body and has been shown to seal septal pores in response to cellular damage. In the present study, Southern blot analysis of genomic DNA indicated that the gene exists as a single copy in the B. cinerea genome. The gene was differentially expressed during various developmental stages: expression was high in germinating conidia and the mycelial stage and lower in resting conidia and the appressorial stage. For functional analyses, homologous recombination was used to obtain a ΔBchex knockout mutant. Growth of the mutant was strongly reduced growth in complete medium and in defined media with sucrose, fructose or pectin as the carbon source. After detached tomato leaves were inoculated with the Bchex mutant, lesion development was markedly reduced compared to the control, suggesting that Bchex participates in normal growth, germination and virulence of this fungus. © 2011 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer. Source
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRA-2007-1.2.3;INFRA-2007-1.2-03 | Award Amount: 5.11M | Year: 2008
EELA-2 aims to build, on the current EELA e-Infrastructure, a high capacity, production-quality, scalable Grid Facility providing round-the-clock, worldwide access to distributed computing, storage and network resources for a wide spectrum of applications from European and Latin American scientific communities. The project will provide an empowered Grid Facility with versatile services fulfilling application requirements and ensure the long-term sustainability of the e-Infrastructure beyond the term of the project. The specific EELA-2 objectives are: - Build a Grid Facility by: Expanding the current EELA e-Infrastructure to consist of more production sites mobilising more computing nodes and more storage space, at start of the project and to further grow storage over the duration of the project; Providing, in collaboration with related projects (e.g. EGEE), the full set of Grid Services needed by all types of scientific applications; Supporting applications various types (from classical off-line data processing up to control and data acquisition of scientific instruments), selected against well defined criteria (including grid added value, suitability for Grid deployment, outreach/potential impact); - Ensure the Grid Facility sustainability: Through the already established and new contacts with policy/decision makers, collaborating with RedCLARA and NRENs and supporting the ongoing creation of e-Science Initiatives and/or National Grid initiatives (NGI). Building the support of the e-Infrastructure to provide a complete set of Global Services from a Central Operation Centre and to pave the way for the creation of Regional Operation Centres in Latin America: Attracting new applications; Making available knowledge of EELA-2 Grid Facility to all potential users, developers, and decision makers through an extensive Training and Dissemination program; Creating knowledge repositories federated with the EGEE ones.