Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: ENERGY-2007-3.2-07 | Award Amount: 1.29M | Year: 2008
The overall objective of the BioTop proposal is to identify technical opportunities and research needs for Latin America and to create and support specific RTD cooperation activities between Latin America and the European Union in order to maximize synergies in the biofuels sectors. Specific objectives are: - to provide a broad overview of the existing biofuel sectors in all Latin American countries. - to identify priorities, needs and opportunities in the field of RTD for sustainable biofuel production and biomass conversion technologies in Latin America; - to inform European and Latin American actors in the biofuel sector about opportunities for collaboration and partnerships; - to harmonize the agenda between Latin America and the EU on sustainable biofuel production; - to facilitate and advance mutual knowledge and technology transfer between biofuel stakeholders in LA and the EU; - to make recommendations on RTD and policies for the production and utilization of biomass conversion technologies. The BioTop project will provide a broad overview of the existing biofuels sector in Latin American counties, with focus on countries with special EU S&T agreements (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico). Key focus of the project will be the identification and assessment of improved 1st and 2nd generation biofuel conversion technologies. Sustainability, standardization and trade aspects of future large-scale biofuel production will be addressed, and RTD scenarios, roadmaps and recommendations will be developed. Exchanges between stakeholders active in research and development of biofuel conversion technologies will be promoted and BioTop activities will be effectively linked with existing networks and a large variety of stakeholders, target groups and key actors. Outcome of the BioTop project will be increased awareness about EU-LA opportunities for collaboration in the area of biofuels and the identification of suitable areas for biofuels RTD cooperation.
Di Sbroiavacca N.,Fundacion Bariloche |
Nadal G.,Fundacion Bariloche |
Lallana F.,Fundacion Bariloche |
Falzon J.,Energy Research Center of the Netherlands |
Calvin K.,Joint Global Change Research Institute
Energy Economics | Year: 2015
In this paper the LEAP, TIAM-ECN, and GCAM models were applied to evaluate the impact of a variety of climate change control policies (including carbon pricing and emission constraints relative to a base year) on primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, electricity sector development, and CO2 emission savings of the energy sector in Argentina over the 2010-2050 period. The LEAP model results indicate that if Argentina fully implements the most feasible mitigation measures currently under consideration by official bodies and key academic institutions on energy supply and demand, such as the ProBiomass program, a cumulative incremental economic cost of 22.8 billion US$(2005) to 2050 is expected, resulting in a 16% reduction in GHG emissions compared to a business-as-usual scenario. These measures also bring economic co-benefits, such as a reduction of energy imports improving the balance of trade. A Low CO2 price scenario in LEAP results in the replacement of coal by nuclear and wind energy in electricity expansion. A High CO2 price leverages additional investments in hydropower. By way of cross-model comparison with the TIAM-ECN and GCAM global integrated assessment models, significant variation in projected emissions reductions in the carbon price scenarios was observed, which illustrates the inherent uncertainties associated with such long-term projections. These models predict approximately 37% and 94% reductions under the High CO2 price scenario, respectively. By comparison, the LEAP model, using an approach based on the assessment of a limited set of mitigation options, predicts an 11.3% reduction. The main reasons for this difference include varying assumptions about technology cost and availability, CO2 storage capacity, and the ability to import bioenergy. An emission cap scenario (2050 emissions 20% lower than 2010 emissions) is feasible by including such measures as CCS and Bio CCS, but at a significant cost. In terms of technology pathways, the models agree that fossil fuels, in particular natural gas, will remain an important part of the electricity mix in the core baseline scenario. According to the models there is agreement that the introduction of a carbon price will lead to a decline in absolute and relative shares of aggregate fossil fuel generation. However, predictions vary as to the extent to which coal, nuclear and renewable energy play a role. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Anderson C.B.,CONICET |
Anderson C.B.,National University of Tierra Del Fuego |
Monjeau A.,Fundacion Bariloche |
Monjeau A.,CONICET |
And 2 more authors.
BioScience | Year: 2015
To achieve a global brain circulation, many Latin American countries have incentivized training abroad and publishing in high impact factor journals. Such internationalization strategies are valuable, but we argue that a knowledge dialogue is a better model for global science to overcome North-South disparities and to achieve both excellence and relevance. Circulation implies transmitting into a system, but dialogue highlights the individuals involved in the exchange. Although extant policies are theoretically adequate means of achieving brain circulation, broader impact criteria (e.g., integrating research and education, enhancing underrepresented groups' participation, linking science with national goals) would help attain genuine knowledge dialogue. Using the Argentine and Chilean science systems as case studies, particularly regarding environmental inquiry, we found that these principles are not systematically used but that nascent efforts exist. Lessons from home and experiences elsewhere offer guidance to promote and evaluate science in a manner that reconciles the need for global excellence and local socioecological relevance. © 2015 The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
van der Zwaan B.,Energy Research Center of the Netherlands |
van der Zwaan B.,University of Amsterdam |
Kober T.,Energy Research Center of the Netherlands |
Calderon S.,Sub Directorate of Sustainable Development |
And 7 more authors.
Energy Economics | Year: 2015
In this paper we investigate opportunities for energy technology deployment under climate change mitigation efforts in Latin America. Through several carbon tax and CO2 abatement scenarios until 2050 we analyze what resources and technologies, notably for electricity generation, could be cost-optimal in the energy sector to significantly reduce CO2 emissions in the region. By way of sensitivity test we perform a cross-model comparison study and inspect whether robust conclusions can be drawn across results from different models as well as different types of models (general versus partial equilibrium). Given the abundance of biomass resources in Latin America, they play a large role in energy supply in all scenarios we inspect. This is especially true for stringent climate policy scenarios, for instance because the use of biomass in power plants in combination with CCS can yield negative CO2 emissions. We find that hydropower, which today contributes about 800 TWh to overall power production in Latin America, could be significantly expanded to meet the climate policies we investigate, typically by about 50%, but potentially by as much as 75%. According to all models, electricity generation increases exponentially with a two- to three-fold expansion between 2010 and 2050. We find that in our climate policy scenarios renewable energy overall expands typically at double-digit growth rates annually, but there is substantial spread in model results for specific options such as wind and solar power: the climate policies that we simulate raise wind power in 2050 on average to half the production level that hydropower provides today, while they raise solar power to either a substantially higher or a much lower level than hydropower supplies at present, depending on which model is used. Also for CCS we observe large diversity in model outcomes, which reflects the uncertainties with regard to its future implementation potential as a result of the challenges this CO2 abatement technology experiences. The extent to which different mitigation options can be used in practice varies greatly between countries within Latin America, depending on factors such as resource potentials, economic performance, environmental impacts, and availability of technical expertise. We provide concise assessments of possible deployment opportunities for some low-carbon energy options, for the region at large and with occasional country-level detail in specific cases. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.
Post humanity as an objective good: The dangers of futurism in the debate about enhancement of human genome [A pós-humanidade como um bem objetivo: Os perigos do futurismo no debate sobre a otimização genética humana] [La posthumanidad como un bien objetivo: Los peligros del futurismo en el debate sobre la optimización genética humana]
Vaccari A.,Fundacion Bariloche
Acta Bioethica | Year: 2014
The figure of posthumanity is invoked in a wide range of arguments that advertise the appeal or even the moral imperative of human enhancement through means of genetic engineering. Posthumanity is presented in these arguments as a highly beneficial state, the end point of a process of directed evolution to which we must devote our efforts. Focusing on the writings of transhumanist philosopher Nick Bostrom, in this article I question this normative role of posthumanity as a legitimation for liberal eugenics. For a start, I argue that the costs and benefits of a posthuman state are impossible to calculate. On the other hand, I identify certain problems concerning the positionality and instrumentality of augmented capacities. These capacities can be considered valuable inasmuch as they (1) provide an advantage relative to a context and (2) they are instrumental to the future benefit of persons. I argue that we cannot establish a necessary connection between capacities and wellbeing, thus the promise of posthumanity as a beneficial state is difficult to take seriously. © 2014, Organizacion Panamericana de la Salud. All rights reserved.