Fundacion AndigenA

Venezuela

Fundacion AndigenA

Venezuela
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Fritz U.,Museum of Zoology Museum fur Tierkunde | Daniels S.R.,Stellenbosch University | Hofmeyr M.D.,University of the Western Cape | Gonzalez J.,Hospitalet Barcelona | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research | Year: 2010

The leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis) is the most widely distributed sub-Saharan tortoise species, with a range extending from the Horn of Africa all over eastern Africa to the Republic of South Africa, Namibia and southernmost Angola. Using 1938 bp of mitochondrial DNA (cyt b gene, partial ND4 gene plus adjacent tRNA genes) from a nearly range-wide sampling, we examined its phylogeographic structure and compared our findings with previously published GenBank sequences. We identified seven major clades that are largely parapatrically distributed. A few records of distinct haplotypes at the same locality or in close proximity could be the result of translocation of tortoises by man. The greatest diversity occurs in the south of the species' range, with five out of the seven clades. Testing for isolation-by-distance suggests that the observed phylogeographic structure is the result of restricted geographical gene flow and not of historical vicariance. This is in sharp contrast to wide-ranging thermophilic reptiles from the western Palaearctic, whose phylogeographic structure was significantly shaped by Pleistocene range interruptions, but also by earlier dispersal and vicariant events. Most cyt b sequences of S. pardalis from GenBank turned out to be nuclear pseudogenes, or to be of chimerical origin from such pseudogenes and authentic mitochondrial sequences, which argues for caution regarding uncritical usage of GenBank sequences. The recent revalidation of the two subspecies of S. pardalis was based on such a chimerical sequence that was erroneously identified with the subspecies S. p. babcocki. Furthermore, according to our data, the distribution of mitochondrial clades does match neither the traditional subspecies ranges nor the pronounced geographical size variation of leopard tortoises. We conclude that there is no rationale for recognizing subspecies within S. pardalis. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Barrio-Amorosanj C.L.,Fundacion AndigenA | Santos J.C.,National Evolutionary Synthesis Center | Molina C.R.,Central University of Venezuela
Phyllomedusa | Year: 2010

An addition to the diversity of dendrobatid frogs in Venezuela: description of three new collared frogs (Anura: Dendrobatidae: Mannophryne). Three new species of collared frogs of the genus Mannophryne are described from Venezuela. Two are newly discovered taxa from the Venezuelan Andes, whereas the third species, previously confused with M. trinitatis, is from the Caracas area in the Cordillera de la Costa. The call of the three new species and that of Mannophryne collaris are described. Taxonomic, zoogeographic, and conservation issues are discussed. © 2010 Departamento de Ciências Biológicas - ESALQ - USP.


Faivovich J.,CONICET | Faivovich J.,São Paulo State University | Faivovich J.,American Museum of Natural History | Haddad C.F.B.,São Paulo State University | And 9 more authors.
Cladistics | Year: 2010

The leaf or monkey frogs of the hylid subfamily Phyllomedusinae are a unique group of charismatic anurans. We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis that includes 45 of the 60 species of phyllomedusines using up to 12 genes and intervening tRNAs. The aims were to gain a better understanding of the phylogenetic position of Phrynomedusa, test the monophyly and explore the relationships among several putative lineages (Hylomantis, the H. buckleyi Group, Phasmahyla, the four species groups of Phyllomedusa, and the species of Phyllomedusa that remain unassigned to any group), and to examine the implications of our phylogeny for the evolution of several characters in phyllomedusines. The analyses resulted in a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis that provides a historical framework for a discussion of the evolution of characters associated with reproductive biology, gliding behaviour, the physiology of waterproofing, and bioactive peptides. Implications include an earlier origin for eggless capsules than for leaf-folding behaviour during amplexus, two independent origins of gliding, and an earlier origin of reduction in evaporative water loss than uricotelism, which is a result that originally was predicted on the basis of physiology alone. Furthermore, our results support the prediction that bioactive peptides from different peptide families are to be expected in all species of Phyllomedusinae. Hylomantis (as recently redefined) is shown to be paraphyletic and the synonymy of Agalychnis is revised to remedy this problem by including both Hylomantis and Pachymedusa. © The Willi Hennig Society 2009.


Rojas-Runjaic F.J.M.,Museo de Historia Natural La Salle | Infante-Rivero E.E.,University of Zulia | Barrio-Amoros C.L.,Fundacion AndigenA
Zootaxa | Year: 2011

A new species of diurnal frog of the genus Aromobates is described from the Sierra de Perijá in the Andes of western Venezuela. The new species is the first dendrobatid reported from this mountain range, though many other congeners are known from the Cordillera de Mérida, also in the Venezuelan Andes. It can be readily distinguished from all congeners by the unique combination of the following characters: dorsal skin granulate, paired and protuberant dorsal digital scutes, finger I shorter than finger II, fringes absent on fingers I and IV, present and conspicuous on all toes, toe webbing basal, dorsolateral stripe present, oblique lateral stripe diffuse, ventrolateral stripe absent. With this new species the number of Aromobates species from Venezuela increases to 13. Copyright © 2011 · Magnolia Press.


Barrio-Amoros C.L.,Fundacion AndigenA | Rojas-Runjaic F.,Museo de Historia Natural La Salle | Barros T.R.,University of Zulia
Zootaxa | Year: 2010

Two new species of Pristimantis are described from Cerro Las Antenas, on the Venezuelan versant of the Sierra de Perijá, a region that is being rapidly destroyed by extensive cultivation and civil unrest. The first species (P. lassoalcalai sp. nov.) has dirty-white spots surrounded by black in the groin and on the hidden surfaces of the hind limbs - a characteristic shared by members of the "lentiginosus" group (Rivero 1982) from the Cordillera de Mérida - and marbled to reticulated venter. The second species (P. rivasi sp. nov.) is currently the largest member of the genus known from Perijá, and presents conspicuous cranial crests. The two new species are assigned to the P. unistrigatus species group. Copyright © 2010 Magnolia Press.


Barrio-Amoros C.L.,Fundacion AndigenA | Santos J.C.,University of Texas at Austin | Jovanovic O.,TU Braunschweig
Zootaxa | Year: 2010

A new species of Anomaloglossus is described from the Venezuelan Guayana; it is the 21st described species of Anomaloglossus from the Guiana Shield, and the 15th from Venezuela. This species inhabits rainforest on granitic substrate on the northwestern edge of the Guiana Shield (Estado Amazonas, Venezuela). The new species is distinguished from congeners by sexual dimorphism, its unique male color pattern (including two bright orange parotoid marks and two orange paracloacal spots on dark brown background), call characteristics and other morphological features. Though to the new species is known only from the northwestern edge of the Guiana Shield, its distribution may be more extensive, as there are no significant biogeographic barriers isolating the type locality from the granitic lowlands of Venezuela. Copyright © 2010 Magnolia Press.


Barrio-Amoros C.L.,Fundacion AndigenA | Mesa J.,Fundacion Explora | Brewer-Carias C.,Fundacion Explora | Mcdiarmid R.W.,U.S. Geological Survey
Zootaxa | Year: 2010

A new species of the genus Pristimantis is described from Churi tepui, in the Chimanta massif, Estado Bolívar, Venezuela. The new species was discovered during the Muchimuk Expedition 2009, an ongoing speleological exploration of the Charles Brewer cave system, the largest sandstone cave on Earth. The species is known from only one female, collected near the mouth of the Muchimuk cave, in "non-gramineous tubiform meadows". The new species can be distinguished from other Pristimantis on the highlands of the Guiana Shield by its unique coloration, indistinct tympanum, dorsal and ventral skin smooth, well-developed lateral fringes on the fingers and toes, and basal webbing on Toes III-V. Copyright © 2010 Magnolia Press.


Barrio-Amoros C.L.,Fundacion AndigenA | Barrio-Amoros C.L.,Institute Biologia Tropical | Heinicke M.P.,Pennsylvania State University | Heinicke M.P.,University of Michigan | Hedges S.B.,Pennsylvania State University
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

A new tuberculated Pristimantis is described from the eastern versant of the Venezuelan Andes. The new species is found in cloud forest at around 1600 masl on the eastern side of the Cordillera de Mérida. It is distinguished from other similar tuberculated species by its round, ill-defined canthus rostralis, ill-defined canthal stripe, and absence of pale spots on the groin and posterior surface of thighs. Pristimantis pleurostriatus is a poorly known species found in cloud forest on the western slopes of the Venezuelan Andes. We redescribe the species based on topotypic specimens. Pristimantis vanadisae is a polychomatic species varying dramatically in pattern; four chromotypes are described. Molecular data are presented which distinguish among tuberculated and other species of Pristimantis in the Cordillera de Merida. Molecular data also support placement of Mucubatrachus and Paramophrynella in Pristimantis. © 2013 Magnolia Press.


Barrio-Amoros C.L.,Fundacion Andigena
Herpetologica | Year: 2010

A new Ceuthomantis is described from the Sarisariñama tepui in southeastern Venezuela. The new species was collected in 2002 and reported previously as Pristimantis cf. cavernibardus. Herein important differences are highlighted as diagnostic for the new species, fitting the recently described family Ceuthomantidae from the Guianan Shield. The biogeography of the genus and family is discussed. © 2010 by The Herpetologists' League, Inc.


A new tuberculated Pristimantis is described from the eastern versant of the Venezuelan Andes. The new species is found in cloud forest at around 1600 masl on the eastern side of the Cordillera de Mrida. It is distinguished from other similar tuberculated species by its round, ill-defined canthus rostralis, ill-defined canthal stripe, and absence of pale spots on the groin and posterior surface of thighs. Pristimantis pleurostriatus is a poorly known species found in cloud forest on the western slopes of the Venezuelan Andes. We redescribe the species based on topotypic specimens. Pristimantis vanadisae is a polychomatic species varying dramatically in pattern; four chromotypes are described. Molecular data are presented which distinguish among tuberculated and other species of Pristimantis in the Cordillera de Merida. Molecular data also support placement of Mucubatrachus and Paramophrynella in Pristimantis.

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