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Sanjurjo L.,Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp | Amezaga N.,Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp | Vilaplana C.,Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp | Vilaplana C.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 13 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages (AIM), a scavenger protein secreted by tissue macrophages, is transcriptionally regulated by the nuclear receptor Liver X Receptor (LXR) and Retinoid X Receptor (RXR) heterodimer. Given that LXR exerts a protective immune response against M. tuberculosis, here we analyzed whether AIM is involved in this response. In an experimental murine model of tuberculosis, AIM serum levels peaked dramatically early after infection with M. tuberculosis, providing an in vivo biological link to the disease. We therefore studied the participation of AIM in macrophage response to M. tuberculosis in vitro. For this purpose, we used the H37Rv strain to infect THP-1 macrophages transfected to stably express AIM, thereby increasing infected macrophage survival. Furthermore, the expression of this protein enlarged foam cell formation by enhancing intracellular lipid content. Phagocytosis assays with FITC-labeled M. tuberculosis bacilli indicated that this protein was not involved in bacterial uptake; however, AIM expression decreased the number of intracellular cfus by up to 70% in bacterial killing assays, suggesting that AIM enhances macrophage mycobactericidal activity. Accordingly, M. tuberculosis-infected AIM-expressing cells upregulated the production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, real-time PCR analysis showed increased mRNA levels of the antimicrobial peptides cathelicidin and defensin 4B. These increases were concomitant with greater cellular concentrations of the autophagy-related molecules Beclin 1 and LC3II, as well as enhanced acidification of mycobacterial phagosomes and LC3 co-localization. In summary, our data support the notion that AIM contributes to key macrophage responses to M. tuberculosis. © 2013 Sanjurjo et al.


Roura S.,Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp | Bago J.R.,Cardiovascular Research Center | Bago J.R.,CIBER ISCIII | Soler-Botija C.,Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Stem cell therapies are promising strategies to regenerate human injured tissues, including ischemic myocardium. Here, we examined the acquisition of properties associated with vascular growth by human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCBMSCs), and whether they promoted vascular growth in vivo. UCBMSCs were induced in endothelial cell-specific growth medium (EGM-2) acquiring new cell markers, increased Ac-LDL uptake, and migratory capacity as assessed by qRT-PCR, Western blotting, indirect immunofluorescence, and invasion assays. Angiogenic and vasculogenic potentials could be anticipated by in vitro experiments showing self organization into Matrigel-mediated cell networks, and activation of circulating angiogenic-supportive myeloid cells. In mice, following subcutaneous co-injection with Matrigel, UCBMSCs modified to co-express bioluminescent (luciferases) and fluorescent proteins were demonstrated to participate in the formation of new microvasculature connected with the host circulatory system. Response of UCBMSCs to ischemia was explored in a mouse model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). UCBMSCs transplanted using a fibrin patch survived 4 weeks post-implantation and organized into CD31+network structures above the infarcted myocardium. MI-treated animals showed a reduced infarct scar and a larger vessel-occupied area in comparison with MI-control animals. Taken together, the presented results show that UCBMSCs can be induced in vitro to acquire angiogenic and vasculogenic properties and contribute to vascular growth in vivo. © 2012 Roura et al.


Cuba-Gyllensten I.,TU Eindhoven | Gastelurrutia P.,Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp | Bonomi A.G.,Philips | Riistama J.,Philips | And 3 more authors.
Medical Engineering and Physics | Year: 2016

Multi-frequency trans-thoracic bioimpedance (TTI) could be used to track fluid changes and congestion of the lungs, however, patient specific characteristics may impact the measurements. We investigated the effects of thoracic geometry and composition on measurements of TTI and developed an equation to calculate a personalized fluid index. Simulations of TTI measurements for varying levels of chest circumference, fat and muscle proportion were used to derive parameters for a model predicting expected values of TTI. This model was then adapted to measurements from a control group of 36 healthy volunteers to predict TTI and lung fluids (fluid index). Twenty heart failure (HF) patients treated for acute HF were then used to compare the changes in the personalized fluid index to symptoms of HF and predicted TTI to measurements at hospital discharge. All the derived body characteristics affected the TTI measurements in healthy volunteers and together the model predicted the measured TTI with 8.9% mean absolute error. In HF patients the estimated TTI correlated well with the discharged TTI (r=0.73, p <0.001) and the personalized fluid index followed changes in symptom levels during treatment. However, 37% (n=7) of the patients were discharged well below the model expected value. Accounting for chest geometry and composition might help in interpreting TTI measurements. © 2016 IPEM.


PubMed | Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp, Philips, Autonomous University of Barcelona and TU Eindhoven
Type: | Journal: Medical engineering & physics | Year: 2016

Multi-frequency trans-thoracic bioimpedance (TTI) could be used to track fluid changes and congestion of the lungs, however, patient specific characteristics may impact the measurements. We investigated the effects of thoracic geometry and composition on measurements of TTI and developed an equation to calculate a personalized fluid index. Simulations of TTI measurements for varying levels of chest circumference, fat and muscle proportion were used to derive parameters for a model predicting expected values of TTI. This model was then adapted to measurements from a control group of 36 healthy volunteers to predict TTI and lung fluids (fluid index). Twenty heart failure (HF) patients treated for acute HF were then used to compare the changes in the personalized fluid index to symptoms of HF and predicted TTI to measurements at hospital discharge. All the derived body characteristics affected the TTI measurements in healthy volunteers and together the model predicted the measured TTI with 8.9% mean absolute error. In HF patients the estimated TTI correlated well with the discharged TTI (r=0.73,p <0.001) and the personalized fluid index followed changes in symptom levels during treatment. However, 37% (n=7) of the patients were discharged well below the model expected value. Accounting for chest geometry and composition might help in interpreting TTI measurements.


Roura S.,Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp | Galvez-Monton C.,Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp | Bayes-Genis A.,Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp | Bayes-Genis A.,Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol | Bayes-Genis A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine | Year: 2013

Advances in bioanalytical techniques have become crucial for both basic research and medical practice. One example, bioluminescence imaging (BLI), is based on the application of natural reactants with light-emitting capabilities (photoproteins and luciferases) isolated from a widespread group of organisms. The main challenges in cardiac regeneration remain unresolved, but a vast number of studies have harnessed BLI with the discovery of aequorin and green fluorescent proteins. First described in the luminous hydromedusan Aequorea victoria in the early 1960s, bioluminescent proteins have greatly contributed to the design and initiation of ongoing cell-based clinical trials on cardiovascular diseases. In conjunction with advances in reporter gene technology, BLI provides valuable information about the location and functional status of regenerative cells implanted into numerous animal models of disease. The purpose of this review was to present the great potential of BLI, among other existing imaging modalities, to refine effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of cardiac cell therapy. We recount the first discovery of natural primary compounds with light-emitting capabilities, and follow their applications to bioanalysis. We also illustrate insights and perspectives on BLI to illuminate current efforts in cardiac regeneration, where the future is bright. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine Published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


PubMed | Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp and Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Revista espanola de cardiologia (English ed.) | Year: 2014

Heart failure is the end-stage of many cardiovascular diseases-such as acute myocardial infarction-and remains one of the most appealing challenges for regenerative medicine because of its high incidence and prevalence. Over the last 20 years, cardiomyoplasty, based on the isolated administration of cells with regenerative capacity, has been the focal point of most studies aimed at regenerating the heart. Although this therapy has proved feasible in the clinical setting, the degree of infarcted myocardium regenerated and of improved cardiac function are at best modest. Hence, tissue engineering has emerged as a novel technology using cells with regenerative capacity, biological and/or synthetic materials, growth, proangiogenic and differentiation factors, and online registry systems, to induce the regeneration of whole organs or locally damaged tissue. The next step, seen recently in pioneering animal studies, is de novo generation of bioartificial hearts by decellularization and preservation of supporting structures for their subsequent repopulation with new contractile, vascular muscle tissue. Ultimately, this new approach would entail transplantation of the rebuilt heart, reestablishing cardiac function in the recipient.


Galvez-Monton C.,Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp | Prat-Vidal C.,Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp | Roura S.,Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp | Soler-Botija C.,Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp | Bayes-Genis A.,Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp
Revista española de cardiología (English ed.) | Year: 2013

Heart failure is the end-stage of many cardiovascular diseases-such as acute myocardial infarction-and remains one of the most appealing challenges for regenerative medicine because of its high incidence and prevalence. Over the last 20 years, cardiomyoplasty, based on the isolated administration of cells with regenerative capacity, has been the focal point of most studies aimed at regenerating the heart. Although this therapy has proved feasible in the clinical setting, the degree of infarcted myocardium regenerated and of improved cardiac function are at best modest. Hence, tissue engineering has emerged as a novel technology using cells with regenerative capacity, biological and/or synthetic materials, growth, proangiogenic and differentiation factors, and online registry systems, to induce the regeneration of whole organs or locally damaged tissue. The next step, seen recently in pioneering animal studies, is de novo generation of bioartificial hearts by decellularization and preservation of supporting structures for their subsequent repopulation with new contractile, vascular muscle tissue. Ultimately, this new approach would entail transplantation of the "rebuilt" heart, reestablishing cardiac function in the recipient. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2013

Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages (AIM), a scavenger protein secreted by tissue macrophages, is transcriptionally regulated by the nuclear receptor Liver X Receptor (LXR) and Retinoid X Receptor (RXR) heterodimer. Given that LXR exerts a protective immune response against M. tuberculosis, here we analyzed whether AIM is involved in this response. In an experimental murine model of tuberculosis, AIM serum levels peaked dramatically early after infection with M. tuberculosis, providing an in vivo biological link to the disease. We therefore studied the participation of AIM in macrophage response to M. tuberculosis in vitro. For this purpose, we used the H37Rv strain to infect THP-1 macrophages transfected to stably express AIM, thereby increasing infected macrophage survival. Furthermore, the expression of this protein enlarged foam cell formation by enhancing intracellular lipid content. Phagocytosis assays with FITC-labeled M. tuberculosis bacilli indicated that this protein was not involved in bacterial uptake; however, AIM expression decreased the number of intracellular cfus by up to 70% in bacterial killing assays, suggesting that AIM enhances macrophage mycobactericidal activity. Accordingly, M. tuberculosis-infected AIM-expressing cells upregulated the production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, real-time PCR analysis showed increased mRNA levels of the antimicrobial peptides cathelicidin and defensin 4B. These increases were concomitant with greater cellular concentrations of the autophagy-related molecules Beclin 1 and LC3II, as well as enhanced acidification of mycobacterial phagosomes and LC3 co-localization. In summary, our data support the notion that AIM contributes to key macrophage responses to M. tuberculosis.


PubMed | Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp, Hospital Of La Santa Creu I Sant Pau Uab and Autonomous University of Barcelona
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of cardiology | Year: 2014

Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) is characterized by adverse ventricular remodeling attributed to altered activity of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase (MMP). MMP overactivation is linked to changes in extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), reportedly modulated by the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) receptor. The aim of this work was to compare the levels, membrane distribution and interactions of LRP1, ERK1,2 and MMP2/9 in control and IDCM myocardium.Left ventricle samples from IDCM patients and control subjects were collected to analyze gene and protein expression by Real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. Fractions enriched in cholesterol, Flotillin-1 and Caveolin-3 (rafts) were isolated from the remaining membrane (non-rafts) by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. We assessed the formation of LRP1-ERK1,2 complexes and MMP activity by immunoprecipitation and zymography, respectively.In control myocardium, LRP1 was exclusively found in non-rafts while activation of ERK1,2 was preferentially detected in rafts. LRP1/p-ERK1,2 complexes were almost undetectable in rafts and non-rafts. In contrast, in IDCM myocardium, LRP1 moved to rafts and ERK1,2 activation was found in raft and non-raft fractions. Moreover, LRP1/p-ERK1,2 complexes were also found in both membrane fractions, although the amount was higher in non-rafts where MMP9 overactivation was exclusively detected.The presented findings demonstrate a differential membrane compartmentalisation of ERK signaling in IDCM myocardium. The movement of LRP1 to rafts and the concomitant increase in non-raft-related ERK1,2/MMP9 activation may have crucial clinical implications in the progression of disease.


PubMed | Fundacio Institute Dinvestigacio En Ciencies Of La Salut Germans Trias I Pujol Igtp and Autonomous University of Barcelona
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of cardiology | Year: 2014

Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most frequent etiology of non-ischemic heart failure. In a majority of cases the causal mechanism is unknown, giving rise to the term idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). Major pathological derangements include patchy interstitial fibrosis, degenerated cardiomyocytes, and dilatation of the cardiac chambers, but recent evidence suggests that disease progression may also have the signature of cardiac endothelial dysfunction. As we better understand the molecular basis of IDCM, novel therapeutic approaches, mainly gene transfer and cell-based therapies, are being explored. Cells with regenerative potential have been extensively tested in cardiac diseases of ischemic origin in both pre-clinical and clinical settings. However, whether cell therapy has any clinical value in IDCM patients is still being evaluated. This article is a concise summary of cell therapy studies for IDCM, with a focus on recent advances that highlight the vascular potential exhibited by umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCBMSCs). We also provide an overview of cardiac vasculature as a key regulator of subjacent myocardial integrity and function, and discuss the potential mechanisms of UCBMSC amelioration of IDCM myocardium. Consideration of these issues shows that these cells are conceivably new therapeutic agents for this complex and elusive human disorder.

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