Fundacio Center Tecnologic

Manresa, Spain

Fundacio Center Tecnologic

Manresa, Spain
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Kampouropoulos K.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic | Andrade F.,University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez
Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE ANDESCON, ANDESCON 2016 | Year: 2016

The challenge of climate change is real and growing. Every car manufacturing plant must look deep into its operations and use every opportunity to play its part in reducing overall emissions. Furthermore, due to the increased competition of the sector, they must turn to solutions that can reduce their costs, but maintaining the products quality on high standards. One way to achieve that goal, which is also the focus of this work, is by reducing the energy use in the plants operation processes. This paper presents a hybrid optimization methodology, combined by neuro-fuzzy inference systems and the quadratic programming algorithm, to calculate the short-term demand forecasting of a plant, and to optimize its energy flow. Moreover, the dynamic models of the plant's equipment are considered into the optimization process, to calculate the dynamic system response and the equipment's inertias. Finally, the algorithm optimizes the operation of the plant with objective to fulfill the energy demand, minimizing several optimization criteria. The presented methodology has been tested and evaluated in an automotive factory plant of Spain using real production and consumption data. © 2016 IEEE.

Oatley D.L.,University of Swansea | Llenas L.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic | Llenas L.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Perez R.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic | And 5 more authors.
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science | Year: 2012

The structuring of water at soft solid surfaces remains an area of great interest to colloid science as a whole and has many applications in relation to colloid stability, foams, and wetting films as well as being central to membrane separations. Quantitatively calculating the structural components of thin layers of water and the interaction forces of hydrated molecules with the surface of pores through a layer of water having modified structure is one of the most important challenges in the physics of surface phenomenon. In this paper these effects are reviewed and discussed in relation to the confines of a capillary pore. Membrane nanofiltration is extremely complex and is dependent on the micro-hydrodynamics and interfacial events occurring at the membrane surface and within the membrane nanopores. There is significant debate as to the exact nature of these complex phenomena and rejection is typically attributed to a combination of steric and electrical effects. The electrical effects are less well understood and in particular the contribution of dielectric exclusion. A review of the two competing descriptions of dielectric exclusion is presented along with the theories currently used in modelling this phenomena. A series of rejection experiments of 0.01 M salt solutions at the membrane isoelectric point has been performed for the NF270 and NF99HF membranes. The dielectric constants inside the nanopore are calculated and these values were consistent for three of the salts studied, indicating that a simplistic model based on Born theory is accurate enough for engineering calculations and that ion solvation is most likely to be the more appropriate dielectric exclusion mechanism for true nanofiltration membranes. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Vilaseca M.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic | Molas S.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic | Casellas D.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic | Casellas D.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Wear | Year: 2011

Soldering and abrasive wear of die-casting tools are some of the biggest problems facing the aluminium die-casting industry. The understanding of the tribological behaviour is crucial to design new tool steels and tool steel-coating systems. The present study aims at investigating aluminium adhesion of aluminium/tool steel pair, performing sliding tests at high temperature with ball-on-disc configuration to reproduce solid/solid interaction. Different test conditions have been conducted in order to select the optimal test parameters to obtain aluminium adhesion on disc surface. Once the lab test has been designed, the high temperature tribological performance of different hot work tool steels (uncoated and coated by PVD) sliding against aluminium has been studied to allow proper die material design and selection. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Mirzadeh H.,Isfahan University of Technology | Cabrera J.M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Cabrera J.M.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic | Najafizadeh A.,Isfahan University of Technology
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science | Year: 2012

The modeling of hot flow stress and prediction of flow curves for unseen deformation conditions are important in metal-forming processes because any feasible mathematical simulation needs accurate flow description. In the current work, in an attempt to summarize, generalize, and introduce efficient methods, the dynamic recrystallization (DRX) flow curves of a 17-4 PH martensitic precipitation hardening stainless steel, a medium carbon microalloyed steel, and a 304 H austenitic stainless steel were modeled and predicted using (1) a hyperbolic sine equation with strain dependent constants, (2) a developed constitutive equation in a simple normalized stress-normalized strain form and its modified version, and (3) a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN). These methods were critically discussed, and the ANN technique was found to be the best for the modeling available flow curves; however, the developed constitutive equation showed slightly better performance than that of ANN and significantly better predicted values than those of the hyperbolic sine equation in prediction of flow curves for unseen deformation conditions. © 2011 The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International.

Kampouropoulos K.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic | Andrade F.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic | Garcia A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Romeral L.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Advances in Electrical and Computer Engineering | Year: 2014

This document presents an energy forecast methodology using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Genetic Algorithms (GA). The GA has been used for the selection of the training inputs of the ANFIS in order to minimize the training result error. The presented algorithm has been installed and it is being operating in an automotive manufacturing plant. It periodically communicates with the plant to obtain new information and update the database in order to improve its training results. Finally the obtained results of the algorithm are used in order to provide a shortterm load forecasting for the different modeled consumption processes. © 2014 AECE.

Mirzadeh H.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Mirzadeh H.,Isfahan University of Technology | Cabrera J.M.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Cabrera J.M.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic | Najafizadeh A.,Isfahan University of Technology
Acta Materialia | Year: 2011

Constitutive equations were used to derive the flow stress of a 17-4 PH stainless steel during hot compression testing. Two general methods were used: (i) a conventional method of finding apparent materials constants; and (ii) a physically based approach which accounts for the dependence of the Young's modulus and the self-diffusion coefficient of austenite on temperature. Both methods were critically discussed and some modifications and easy-to-apply methods were also introduced. The second approach was also performed for peak and critical stresses to find out the effect of dynamic recrystallization on the ideal theoretical values. The discussion of results proved that when the deformation mechanism is controlled by the glide and climb of dislocations, a constant creep exponent (n) of 5 can be used in the classical hyperbolic sine equation, and the self-diffusion activation energy can be used to describe the appropriate stress. © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Santasmasas C.,Recubrimientos y Moldeados S.A. REMOSA | Rovira M.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic | Clarens F.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic | Valderrama C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Resources, Conservation and Recycling | Year: 2013

Grey water treatment and reuse for non-drinking water requirements has become of great interest in arid and semi-arid zones where water resources are becoming both quantitatively and qualitatively scarce. In this study a decentralized and automatic MBR prototype has been designed and installed in the REMOSA facilities for treatment of low-load grey water to be recycled in flushing-toilet application. The recycling treatment of grey water comprises four stages: screening, biological oxidation, filtration and a final disinfection by chlorination. The influent and effluent were monitored in order to determine the treatment efficiency and assessment of the quality potential of treated grey water. The results obtained indicate that recycling of grey water allows an effluent of excellent quality with organic, surfactants and microbial parameters under the limits defined by Spanish legislation for urban water reuse. The disinfection of treated grey water is required to ensure compliance with microbial standards and to avoid the health risk in storage and application of recycled water. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Pujante J.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic | Pelcastre L.,Lulea University of Technology | Vilaseca M.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic | Casellas D.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic | Prakash B.,Lulea University of Technology
Wear | Year: 2013

Aluminium alloys show poor formability at room temperature, and the production of complex components requires a series of high temperature forming processes, such as warm and hot forging, extrusion and hot sheet metal forming. Forming aluminium in these conditions subjects the tools to severe adhesive wear and galling, leading to increased energy needs, shorter tool life, lower part quality and increased cost. In this work, the wear mechanisms generated by aluminium alloys on forming tools have been studied by means of linear reciprocating sliding tests. Aluminium alloy AA2017 balls were slid against DIN 1.2344 (AISI H13) tool steel samples with various surface finishes at temperatures up to 450. °C. The main results show that the observed wear mechanisms are extremely dependent on the system temperature, ranging from pure abrasive wear to formation of layers of compacted aluminium debris and gross aluminium transfer in the form of lumps. On the other hand, tool surface finish has a limited effect on gross material transfer, but does affect the material transfer micromechanisms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Higuera-Cobos O.F.,Universidad Politécnica de Ingeniería | Higuera-Cobos O.F.,Technological University of Pereira | Cabrera J.M.,Universidad Politécnica de Ingeniería | Cabrera J.M.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic
Materials Science and Engineering A | Year: 2013

Samples of commercially pure copper (ETP copper) were subjected to equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) for up to 16 passes at room temperature following route Bc. Microstructural evolution was determined by oriented image microscopy (OIM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to estimate the stored deformation energy and the recrystallization temperature after each ECAP pass. On the other hand, electrical properties were correlated with the associated energy that results from the defects induced by ECAP. Results show that the stored energy rises on increasing ECAP deformation, while the recrystallization temperature decreases significatively. Also, mechanical properties after each pass were evaluated by tensile tests. Microstructural and mechanical features display that a stable microstructure is attained after four passes. Similarly, electrical conductivity decreases up to a saturation state at increasing ECAP passes. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Lara A.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic | Picas I.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic | Casellas D.,Fundacio Center Tecnologic
Journal of Materials Processing Technology | Year: 2013

Press hardened 22MnB5 steels are steady broadening their applications in vehicles since they allow to meet the increasing demands for weight reduction and safety standards. Press hardened parts have been typically applied as structural reinforcements where high rigidity and crash resistance are required. However, the need for further weight reductions in vehicles leads to potential applications in chassis areas, where parts must face up to cyclic loads. The fatigue behaviour of the press hardened 22MnB5 steel and the effect that post-forming processes (such as trimming or punching that usually follows press hardening) on the fatigue behaviour is scarcely known. Thus, the aim of this work is to analyse the fatigue behaviour of 22MnB5 press hardened steels cut using different strategies. The fatigue limit has been obtained in tensile samples of 22MnB5 with an Al-Si coating. Samples were cut by laser and shearing with two different clearance values. Results are compared to those obtained with a high drawing quality mild steel and a dual phase steel with a tensile strength of 1000 MPa, DP1000. It is shown that the fatigue behaviour of press hardened 22MnB5 steels and DP1000 is governed by the defects introduced in cut edges, while the behaviour of the mild steel is almost independent of the cut edge quality. This finding indicates that high strength steels are markedly sensitive to pre-existent defects, such as burr, cracks at the cut edge or surface cracks, and they can be considered as low damage tolerant steels. On the contrary, mild steels are highly damage tolerant, i.e. the fatigue life is mainly independent of the initial defect size. In press hardened 22MnB5, even when cut edges have a high surface quality, the fatigue limit is still limited by the presence of cracks in the brittle Al-Si coating. Crack propagation due to the low damage tolerance capacity of the press hardened steel has been successfully rationalized through a fracture mechanics approach. Thus, if coated press hardened 22MnB5 steels are to be applied in vehicle components subjected to cyclic loads, they must be designed following fracture mechanics concepts to state the safe loading conditions for adequate fatigue resistance. Abbreviationsacrack lengthBiWbody-in-whiteKstress intensity factorK thfatigue crack propagation thresholdΔσapplied stress amplitudeLEFMlinear elastic fracture mechanicsRfatigue load ratioSENTsingle edge notch tensionσFATfatigue limitσmaxmaximal applied stressTEtotal elongationUHSSultra high-strength steelsUTSultimate tensile strengthYdimensionless factor that accounts for the crack geometryYSyield strengthGgrain size according to ASTM E112 © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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