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Silva V.S.,Fundacao Zoo Botanica de Belo Horizonte | Azevedo C.S.,Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais
Lundiana | Year: 2013

The study of animal personality has important implications in conservation programs. When reintroduction is used for the preservation of a species, the survival ratio of reintroduced animals needs to be high. The determination of animal personality helps choosing the right animals, therefore increasing their survival chances and also increasing the reintroduction success. Three captive, male maned wolves were chosen for personality evaluation. Two personality tests were carried out and compared: The boldness score test estimated the level of boldness from a series of behaviors divided into bold, shy and fear categories; and questionnaires showed how zookeepers perceived the personality of the same three animals, while they were working with them. According to the boldness score calculation, Maned Wolf Two (MW2) was the boldest, followed, in order, by MW1 and MW3. According to the questionnaires, MW1 was the boldest, followed by MW2 and by MW3. Reasons for these contradictory results and variables that should be considered in both tests for increasing their accuracy are discussed. Used together, these tests showed to be helpful tools for choosing among individuals to be released in the wild. © 2013 Instituto de Cîncias Biológicas - UFMG. Source


De Azevedo C.S.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Lima M.F.F.,Centro Universitario Of Belo Horizonte | Cipreste C.F.,Fundacao Zoo Botanica de Belo Horizonte | Young R.J.,Pontifical Catholic University of Minas Gerais | Rodrigues M.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
International Zoo Yearbook | Year: 2013

Animals kept by zoos may express abnormal behaviours that are indicators of poor welfare. Environmental enrichment is a technique of providing items to animals that stimulate the expression of normal behaviours. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of providing simple environmental enrichment in the reduction of the expression of abnormal behaviour in captive-born Greater rhea Rhea americana at Belo Horizonte Zoo, south-eastern Brazil. As enrichment, fruit and vegetables were scatter fed to a group of seven birds from April to September 2009, and the behaviour of the birds was recorded using scan sampling with instantaneous recording of behaviour every 1 minute for 1 hour daily (90 hours of observation). The study was divided into three phases: baseline, enrichment and post-enrichment. The abnormal behaviours 'pacing', 'eating faeces' and 'escaping behaviour' reduced during the enrichment phase, but only the first two behaviours differed significantly between the phases; 'walking' and 'foraging', both positive behaviours, increased during the enrichment phase. These results showed that the implementation of simple environmental enrichment can stimulate the Greater rhea to exhibit more natural behaviours and improve their welfare. © 2012 The Zoological Society of London. Source


Luppi M.M.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Malta M.C.C.,Fundacao Zoo Botanica de Belo Horizonte | Ocarino N.M.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Franca S.A.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Serakides R.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
Journal of Comparative Pathology | Year: 2010

Cutaneous angiomatosis was diagnosed in an adult female llama (Lama glama). Lesions were raised or plaque-like, erythematous, firm to soft in consistency and were observed on the face and skin of the axillary, abdominal, perineal and inguinal regions. The lesions were not painful or pruritic. Microscopical examination revealed an irregular parakeratotic lamellar hyperkeratosis associated with diffuse proliferation of arterioles and venules in the superficial dermis. Immunohistochemical analysis determined that the cells forming these vessels and perivascular cells expressed factor VIII-related antigen, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD31 and smooth-muscle alpha-actin. These studies confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous angiomatosis. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Gomes M.P.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | da Silva Cruz F.V.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Borges F.V.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Fonseca M.B.,Fundacao Zoo Botanica de Belo Horizonte | Garcia Q.S.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
Environmental and Experimental Botany | Year: 2016

We examined the germination and biochemical features of seeds of the threatened Brazilian species Dimorphandra wilsonii exposed to Zn. Although seed germination decreased with Zn exposure, the species was able to germinate even under high Zn doses (200 mg Zn l-1). Zn-toxicity was related to Zn-induced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation, although increased activities of the H2O2-scavenging enzymes catalase and ascorbate peroxidase allowed seed germination in the presence of Zn. Using electron transport chain (ETC) inhibitors, we located the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS) production sites in seeds exposed to 200 mg Zn l-1. Rotenone (an inhibitor of mitochondrial ETC complex I) reduced H2O2 concentrations in embryos of Zn-treated seeds while KCN (an inhibitor of mitochondrial ETC complex IV) and dicumarol (an inhibitor of the plasma membrane ETC) showed no effects. The activities of enzymes related to mitochondrial ETC (Complexes I-IV) were reduced and the pool of oxidized ubiquinone was greater in Zn-treated seeds. Mitochondrial ETCs therefore appear to be the main sites for Zn-induced ROS formation, and that metal appears to act upstream of Complex IV. These results suggest that Zn does not block electron flow in the mitochondrial ETC but directly modify ubiquinone sites in Complexes I and II, resulting in H2O2 formation. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Fonseca M.B.,Fundacao Zoo Botanica de Belo Horizonte | Franca M.G.C.,Federal University of Minas Gerais | Zonta E.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Giorni V.,Federal University of Minas Gerais
Acta Botanica Brasilica | Year: 2010

Dimorphandra wilsonii Rizz. is a critically endangered tree species. It has been described for sites of higher soil fertility in the Cerrado Domain. However, it occurs nowadays in isolated areas of low natural fertility. To study species adaptation to oligotrophic conditions, plants were grown in a greenhouse in soils from oligotrophic sites but with different levels of fertility. After soil fertility analysis, the macronutrients (NPK) and lime doses to be used in each treatment were defi ned, resulting in a combination of two liming levels and three fertilization levels. After 220 days, the treatments that signifi cantly increased seedling growth were the one whose substrate was limed and fertilized with twice the prescribed NPK dosage, and the one with the indicated dosage of NPK but no liming. Liming itself did not promote growth enhancement, but favored increased growth response to increasing levels of nutrient availability. Root nodules were found in all the treatments, and the results led to the conclusion that D. wilsonii nutritional requirements are consistent with its original distribution sites in the Cerrado Domain. It was also possible to highlight nitrogen biological fi xation, an unusual feature in Caesalpinioideae, as an adaptive strategy for survival in areas of low nutrient availability. Source

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