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São Cristóvão, Brazil

Mendes-de-Almeida F.,Federal University of Fluminense | Remy G.L.,Fundacao RIOZOO | Gershony L.C.,Federal University of Fluminense | Rodrigues D.P.,Fundacao RIOZOO | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery | Year: 2011

The size of urban cat colonies is limited only by the availability of food and shelter; therefore, their population growth challenges all known population control programs. To test a new population control method, a free-roaming feral cat colony at the Zoological Park in the city of Rio de Janeiro was studied, beginning in 2001. The novel method consisted of performing a hysterectomy on all captured female cats over 6 months of age. To estimate the size of the colony and compare population from year to year, a method of capture-mark-release-recapture was used. The aim was to capture as many individuals as possible, including cats of all ages and gender to estimate numbers of cats in all population categories. Results indicated that the feral cat population remained constant from 2001 to 2004. From 2004 to 2008, the hysterectomy program and population estimates were performed every other year (2006 and 2008). The population was estimated to be 40 cats in 2004, 26 in 2006, and 17 cats in 2008. Although pathogens tend to infect more individuals as the population grows older and maintains natural behavior, these results show that free-roaming feral cat colonies could have their population controlled by a biannual program that focuses on hysterectomy of sexually active female cats. © 2011 ISFM and AAFP.

Garcia-Borboroglu P.,CONICET | Garcia-Borboroglu P.,University of Washington | Boersma P.D.,University of Washington | Ruoppolo V.,International Fund for Animal Welfare IFAW | And 8 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2010

Magellanic penguins migrate from Patagonia reaching northern Argentina, Uruguay, and southern Brazil on their winter migration, in parallel with the seasonal pulse of anchovy spawning. In 2008, Magellanic penguins went further north than usual. Many died and a few swam nearly to the Equator. Twelve groups surveyed 5000. km of coastline encountering 3371 penguins along the coast. Most penguins arrived in northern Brazil (68.4%) without petroleum (2933, 87%). Almost all penguins without petroleum were juveniles (2915, 99%) and 55% were alive when found. Penguins were dehydrated, anemic, hypothermic, and emaciated. Of the penguins with petroleum, 13% arrived in the southern half of Brazil, showing that petroleum pollution remains a problem along the SW Atlantic coast. The mortality occurred in the winter of 2008 when sea surface temperature were unusually cold perhaps reducing the prey for penguins. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Muniz C.P.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Muniz C.P.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Jia H.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Shankar A.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 8 more authors.
Retrovirology | Year: 2015

Background: While simian foamy viruses have co-evolved with their primate hosts for millennia, most scientific studies have focused on understanding infection in Old World primates with little knowledge available on the epidemiology and natural history of SFV infection in New World primates (NWPs). To better understand the geographic and species distribution and evolutionary history of SFV in NWPs we extend our previous studies in Brazil by screening 15 genera consisting of 29 NWP species (140 monkeys total), including five genera (Brachyteles, Cacajao, Callimico, Mico, and Pithecia) not previously analyzed. Monkey blood specimens were tested using a combination of both serology and PCR to more accurately estimate prevalence and investigate transmission patterns. Sequences were phylogenetically analyzed to infer SFV and host evolutionary histories. Results: The overall serologic and molecular prevalences were 42.8 and 33.6 %, respectively, with a combined assay prevalence of 55.8 %. Discordant serology and PCR results were observed for 28.5 % of the samples, indicating that both methods are currently necessary for estimating NWP SFV prevalence. SFV prevalence in sexually mature NWPs with a positive result in any of the WB or PCR assays was 51/107 (47.7 %) compared to 20/33 (61 %) for immature animals. Epidemiological analyses revealed an increase in SFV prevalence with age in captive Cebus monkeys. Phylogenetic analysis identified novel SFVs in Cacajao, Leontopithecus, and Chiropotes species that had 6-37 % nucleotide divergence to other NWP SFV. Comparison of host and SFV phylogenies showed an overall cospeciation evolutionary history with rare ancient and contemporaneous host-switching for Saimiri and Leontopithecus and Cebus xanthosternos, respectively. Conclusions: We identified novel SFV in four neotropical monkey genera in Brazil and demonstrate that SFV prevalence increases with age in Cebus monkeys. Importantly, our test results suggest that both molecular and serological screening are currently required to accurately determine infection with NWP SFV. Our study significantly expands knowledge of the epidemiology and natural history of NWP SFVs. The tools and information provided in our study will facilitate further investigation of SFV in NWPs and the potential for zoonotic infection with these viruses. © 2015 Muniz et al.

de Resende L.S.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Gomes K.C.P.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Andriolo A.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Genaro G.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science | Year: 2011

Nonhuman animals in captivity can experience environmental privation that results in their exhibiting abnormal behaviors. Environmental enrichment techniques can help improve their welfare. This study investigated the behavior of 8 zoo-housed oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in response to 2 odors (catnip and cinnamon) introduced individually into the animals' enclosures for 3 consecutive days. Proportion of scans spent engaging in stereotypical pacing were compared before, during, and after treatments. The addition of cinnamon reduced the proportion of pacing during and after enrichment (Wilcoxon: Z D 3.16, p <.001; Z D 3.16, p <.001, respectively), indicating a prolonged effect of the enrichment on the animals' behavior. Catnip appears to have elicited no significant difference in the stereotypic pacing before, during, or after the enrichment (Friedman: X 2 D 2.69; p D.260). The results highlight the potential use of cinnamon as a method of environmental enrichment for small captive-housed cats. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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