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Campinas, Brazil

Santinato F.,Sao Paulo State University | da Silva C.D.,Federal University of Vicosa | da Silva R.P.,Sao Paulo State University | Ruas R.A.A.,Federal University of Vicosa | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental

Mechanized harvesting of coffee in the crop´s first harvest has restrictions on its use. There are assumptions that this type of harvesting can increase damage to plants and increase the amount of coffee falling on the ground. In this context, present study aimed to evaluate the harvest efficiency and damage to the coffee plants by the harvesters in first harvest of crop. Two situations of crop were compared: mature and immature crops. In both, the harvesting operations were conducted with two harvesters, A and B (adapted automotive coffee harvester and common combine harvester) operating in two intensities (I - operating speed of 1,200 m h-1 and the sticks vibration of 600 rpm and II - operating speed of 1,000 m h-1 and 850 rpm). The treatments were studied in factorial 2 x 2 + 1, outlined in blocks, with five repetitions. The harvest efficiency, amount of fallen and remaining coffee grains, damage to plants and leaves of crop after the execution of the harvest were evaluated. It was found that the mechanical harvesting of first crop of coffee plantations should only be made using adapted harvesters. Mechanized coffee harvesting, promotes minor damage to the plants than manual harvest. © 2015, Departamento de Engenharia Agricola - UFCG/Cnpq. All rights reserved. Source

Paiva R.N.,Fundacao Procafe | De Carvalho C.H.S.,Pesquisador Embrapa Cafe | Mendes A.N.G.,Federal University of Lavras | De Almeida S.R.,MAPA | And 2 more authors.
Coffee Science

This work assessed the field performance of compact growth coffee progenies developed by the MAPA/Procafé Foundation breeding program. An experiment was set up at the Procafé Foundation's Experimental Station in Varginha, Minas Gerais state, using 20 progenies, 16 of which were resistant to leaf rust. The evaluations began two and a half years after planting in four repetitions, totalizing 80 plots, each one constituted by four coffee plants. The following characteristics were analyzed: the six first annual harvests (2002 to 2007), husk/bean ratio, cup quality and screen analysis. In the 2006/2007 annual harvest, crop yield and moca percentage were assessed and screen classification was done, while in the 2007/2008 harvest, sensorial classification was carried out. The Sabiá Tardio cv 398 presented the highest yield among all the progenies. The progenies of the Catucaí group (Catucaí Amarelo 24/137 (C.O), Catucaí Vermelho 24/137, Catucaí Vermelho 20/15 cv 476 and Catucaí Vermelho 19/18 cv 221), Sarchimor group (Obatã IAC-1669-20, Tupi IAC 4093, Arara F4), and IBC-Palma-1 (3-12), Saíra cv 362, Topázio MG 1189 and Catuaí Amarelo IAC 74 presented good field performance and are recommended for the Varginha region. These progenies were also considered a good source for genetic breeding programs. The bean size and cup quality of all the progenies were rated good. Source

de Rezende J.C.,Centro Tecnologico Do Sul Of Minas | de Carvalho C.H.S.,EMBRAPA - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria | Santos A.C.R.,Fundacao Procafe | Pasqual M.,Federal University of Lavras
Acta Scientiarum - Agronomy

The goal of this project was to evaluate the embryogenic callus induction of two Coffea arabica clones selected for their characteristics of rust resistance and high yield, as well as to compare their multiplication in two different media under both solid and liquid cultivation conditions. The protocol described by Teixeira et al. (2004) was used for callus induction in a randomized block design in which each clone was considered a treatment. Evaluation of callus induction was carried out 180 days after initiation by counting embryogenic calli. For callus multiplication, the treatments consisted of two different media [stage two of Albarran et al. (2004) and the multiplication medium described by Teixeira et al. (2004)] and two cultivation systems (solid and liquid). Evaluations were conducted by weighing calli 21, 42 and 63 days after initiation of the experiment. The two studied clones exhibited the same potential for embryogenic callus induction. The potential for embryogenic callus multiplication was influenced by the plant's genotype. When compared with the liquid system, the solid system displayed the highest level of embryogenic callus multiplication for the clones studied. Source

Japiassu L.B.,Fundacao Procafe | Garcia A.L.A.,Fundacao Procafe | Guimaraes R.J.,Federal University of Lavras | Padilha L.,Pesquisadora Embrapa Cafe | Carvalho C.H.S.,Pesquisadora Embrapa Cafe
Coffee Science

Modern, competitive and cost effective coffee production requires plants with high productivity that are more adapted to mechanical and manual harvesting. "Safra Zero" is a cultivation system designed to limit plant height and eliminate the need for expensive harvesting during years of low productivity, which usually follow years of high productivity. This system is based on pruning cycles, nitrogen fertilization and different management methods. To evaluate the "Safra Zero" system, the following experiments were conducted in coffee fields (Coffea arabica L.) at the Procafé/MAPA Experimental Station, in Varginha, Minas Gerais state: i) Evaluation of different pruning cycles in short plants; ii) Evaluation of different pruning cycles in tall plants. Rejuvenation pruning, in which all the primary branches were cut-back severely (parrot-perching), was done in alternate years, every four years, to evaluate mean productivity. iii) Evaluation of the pruning management every two years, associated with the application of different nitrogen doses (0, 200 and 400 kg.ha-1.year-1). The different pruning cycles did not result in yield gain, compared to the control plants (without pruning). The use of different nitrogen levels after pruning, in a coffee field grown on soils with high organic matter content and traditionally fertilized with 350 kg of N per hectare per year, did not improve yield, with or without pruning. Source

Garcia A.L.A.,Fundacao Procafe | Padilha L.,Embrapa Cafe | Garcia A.W.R.,Fundacao Procafe | Mendes A.N.G.,Federal University of Lavras | de Carvalho C.H.S.,Embrapa Cafe
Coffee Science

The urea-based fertilizers may suffer significant losses of nitrogen to the atmosphere. This is due to the transformation of urea to ammonia in the presence of urease produced by soil microorganisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combination of urea with urease inhibitor NBPT [N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide, nitrogen absorption and development of coffee seedlings. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a factorial design. We evaluated three doses of N-urea in the presence and absence of NBPT divided into two installments. Were also considered two periods of water supply: before and after fertilization. Three additional treatments were included: control without nitrogen, 7.2 g of urea-N (in a single application) with and without NBPT. Four months after the second installment we evaluated the total production of dry matter (DM) and nitrogen absorbed. The use of NBPT favored the increase of DM and nitrogen absorbed proportionally to the dose of N applied. The supply of water before or after covering the fertilizer did not influence any features. The control sample behaved less than all other treatments. It was observed that application of 7.2 g N-urea performed in a single dose caused plant mortality on the second day after application of fertilizer without NBPT, and on the sixth day when urea was associated with an inhibitor. Potted Coffee seedlings fertilized with urea-NBPT exploit the N available more efficiently. They have an 18% gain in dry matter production and a 32% increase in the N absorbed. Source

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